Astrophysics and Space Science

, Volume 51, Issue 1, pp 135–152 | Cite as

On the evolution of central stars of planetary nebulae

  • Raphael Z. Yahel
Article
  • 29 Downloads

Abstract

The evolution of nuclei of planetary nebulae has been calculated from the end of the ejection stage that produces the nebulae to the white, dwarf stage. The structure of the central star is in agreement with the general picture of Finzi (1973) about the mass ejection from the progenitors of planetary nebulae. It has been found that in order to obtain evolutionary track consistent with the Harman-Seaton track (O'Dell, 1968) one has to assume that the masses of the nuclei stars are less than ∼0.7M. The calculated evolutionary time scale of the central stars of planetary nebulae is ∼2×104 yr. This time scale is negatively correlated with the stellar mass: the heavier the stellar mass, the shorter the evolutionary time scale.

Keywords

Evolutionary Time General Picture Stellar Mass Central Star Planetary Nebula 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abell, G. O. and Goldreich, P.: 1966,Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 78, 233.Google Scholar
  2. Aller, L. H.: 1968 in D. E. Osterbrock and C. R. O'Dell (eds.), ‘Planetary Nebulae’,I.A.U. Symp. 34, 339.Google Scholar
  3. Alloin, D., Cruz-Gonzalez, C., and Peimberg, M.: 1976,Astrophys. J. 205, 74.Google Scholar
  4. Barkat, Z. and Tuchman, I.: 1977, preprint.Google Scholar
  5. Baudet, G. and Salpeter, E. E.: 1969,Astrophys. J. 155, 203.Google Scholar
  6. Baudet, G., Petrosian, V., and Salpeter, E. E.: 1967,Astrophys. J. 150, 979.Google Scholar
  7. Bohlin, R. C., Marionni, P. A., and Stecher, T. P.: 1975,Astrophys. J. 202, 415.Google Scholar
  8. Böhm, K. H.: 1968, in D. E. Osterbrock and C. R. O'Dell (eds.), ‘Planetary Nebulae’,IAU Symp. 34, 297.Google Scholar
  9. Cahn, J. H. and Kaler, J. B.: 1972,Astrophys. J. Suppl. 22, 319.Google Scholar
  10. Chin, C. W., Chiu, H. Y., and Stothers, R.: 1966,Ann. Phys. 39, 280.Google Scholar
  11. Cox, A. N., and Stewart, J. N.: 1970,Astrophys. J. Suppl. 19, 243.Google Scholar
  12. Cox, J. P. and Giuli, R. T.: 1968,Stellar Structure, Vol. I, Gordon and Breach, Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  13. Deinzer, W.: 1967,Z. Astrophys. 67, 342.Google Scholar
  14. Deinzer, W. and Sengbusch, K. V.: 1970,Astrophys. J. 160, 672.Google Scholar
  15. Faulkner, D. J. and Wood, P. R.: 1972,Astrophys. J. 178, 207.Google Scholar
  16. Finzi, A. and Wolf, R. A.: 1970,Astrophys. Letters 5, 63.Google Scholar
  17. Finzi, A. and Wolf, R. A.: 1972,Astron. Astrophys. 11, 418.Google Scholar
  18. Finzi, A.: 1973,Les Nebuleuses Planetaires, XVIII Colloque International d'Astrophysique, Liège, p. 405.Google Scholar
  19. Finzi, A., Finzi, R., and Shaviv, G.: 1974,Astron. Astrophys. 37, 325.Google Scholar
  20. Finzi, A. and Yahel, R.: 1977,Astron. Astrophys. (submitted).Google Scholar
  21. Härm, R. and Schwarzchild, M.: 1975,Astrophys. J. 200, 324.Google Scholar
  22. Harman, R. J. and Seaton, M. J.: 1966,Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 132, 15.Google Scholar
  23. Hayashi, C., Hoshi, R., and Sugimoto, D.: 1962,Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 22.Google Scholar
  24. Hills, J. C.: 1972,Astron. Astrophys. 17, 155.Google Scholar
  25. Joss, P. C., Katz, J. I., Malone, R. C., and Salpeter, E. E.: 1973,Astrophys. J. 181, 409.Google Scholar
  26. Katz, J. I., Malone R. C., and Salpeter, E. E.: 1974,Astrophys. J. 190, 359.Google Scholar
  27. Keeley, D. A.: 1970,Astrophys. J. 161, 657.Google Scholar
  28. Kovetz, A. and Shaviv, G.: 1973,Astrophys. Space. Sci. 23 385.Google Scholar
  29. Kutter, G. and Sparks, W. M.: 1974,Astrophys. J. 192, 447.Google Scholar
  30. L'Ecuyer, G.: 1966,Astrophys. J. 146, 845.Google Scholar
  31. Murai, T., Sugimoto, D., Moshi, R., and Hayashi, C.: 1968,Progr. Theor. Phys. 39, 619.Google Scholar
  32. O'Dell, C. R.: 1963,Astrophys. J. 138, 67.Google Scholar
  33. O'Dell, C. R.: 1968, in D. E. Osterbrock and C. R. O'Dell (eds.), ‘Planetary Nebulae’,IAU Symp. 34, 361.Google Scholar
  34. Paczynski, B.: 1970,Acta Astron. 20, 195.Google Scholar
  35. Peimbert, M. and Torres-Peimbert, S.: 1971,Astrophys. J. 168, 413.Google Scholar
  36. Rakavy, G., Shaviv, G., and Zinamon, Z.: 1967,Astrophys. J. 150, 131.Google Scholar
  37. Rakavy, G. and Shaviv, G.: 1967, in Orange Aid Preprint 113, Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Inst. of Technology.Google Scholar
  38. Reeves, H.: 1966, in R. F. Stein and A. G. W. Cameron (eds.)Stellar Evolution, Plenum Press, New York, p. 83.Google Scholar
  39. Rose, R. L. and Smith, W. K.: 1970,Astrophys. J. 159, 903.Google Scholar
  40. Rose, R. L. and Wentzel, D. G.: 1973,Astrophys. J. 182, 115.Google Scholar
  41. Salpeter, E. E.: 1972,Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 9, 127.Google Scholar
  42. Schwarzchild, M.: 1958,Structure and Evolution of the Stars Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Schwarzchild M. and Härm, R.: 1965,Astrophys. J. 142, 855.Google Scholar
  44. Seaton, M. J.: 1966,Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 132, 113.Google Scholar
  45. Smith, W. K. and Rose, R. L.: 1972,Astrophys. J. 176, 395.Google Scholar
  46. Stothers, R.: 1966,Astrophys. J. 72, 943.Google Scholar
  47. Stry, P. E.: 1975,Astrophys. J. 196, 559.Google Scholar
  48. Vila, S. C.: 1966,Astrophys. J. 146, 437.Google Scholar
  49. Vila, S. C.: 1967,Astrophys. J. 149, 613.Google Scholar
  50. Webster, L.: 1969,Monthly Notices. Roy. Astron. Soc. 143, 113.Google Scholar
  51. Yahel, R.: 1976, Ph.D. Thesis.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raphael Z. Yahel
    • 1
  1. 1.Theoretical Physics Department, Racah Institute of PhysicsThe Hebrew University of JerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations