European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 429–432 | Cite as

Glucaric acid excretion. Analysis of the enzymatic assay and findings in smokers and non-smokers

  • K. Fiedler
  • E. Schröter
  • H. Cramer


Glucaric acid (GA) excretion in urine from cigarette smokers and non-smoking control subjects was determined enzymatically. There was no difference between GA 41.0±3.2 µmol/g creatinine (Cn; mean ± SEM) in smokers and GA 43.1±3.4 µmol/g Cn in the controls. Gas chromatographic analysis of the GA-glucarolactone equilibrium was carried out in an attempt to elucidate the striking discrepancies in previous results.

Key words

glucaric acid excretion smokers control subjects glucaric acid assay glucarolactone enzyme induction 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aarts EM (1965) Evidence for the function ofd-glucaric acid as an indicator for drug induced enhanced metabolism through the glucuronic acid pathway in man. Biochem Pharmacol 14: 359–363Google Scholar
  2. Aarts EM (1966) Differentiation of the barbiturate stimulation of the glucuronic acid pathway from de novo enzyme synthesis. Biochem Pharmacol 15: 1469–1477Google Scholar
  3. Bose RJ, Hullar TL, Lewis BA, Smith F (1961) Isolation of the 1,4- and 3,6-lactones ofd-glucaric acid. J Org Chem 26: 1300–1301Google Scholar
  4. Cunningham JL, Price Evans DA (1974) Urinaryd-glucaric acid excretion and acetanilide pharmacokinetics before and during diphenylhydantoin administration. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 7: 387–391Google Scholar
  5. Davidson DC, McIntosh WB, Ford JA (1974) Assessment of plasma glutamyltranspeptidase and urinaryd-glucaric acid excretion as indices of enzyme induction. Clin Sci Mol Med 47: 279–283Google Scholar
  6. Davis M, Simmons CJ, Dordoni B, Williams R (1974) Urinaryd-glucaric acid excretion and plasma antipyrin kinetics during enzyme induction. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1: 253–257Google Scholar
  7. Gangolli SD, Longland RC, Shilling WH (1974) A gas liquid chromatographic method for the determination ofd-glucaric acid in urine. Clin Chim Acta 50: 237–243Google Scholar
  8. Gilbert JC, Scott AK, Galloway DB, Petrie JC (1974) Ethosuximide: Liver enzyme induction andd-glucaric acid excretion. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1: 249–253Google Scholar
  9. Herzberg M, Tenenbaum E, Fishel B, Wiener M (1977)d-Glucaric acid and gamma-glutamyl transferase as indices of hepatic enzyme induction in pregnancy. Clin Chem 23: 596–598Google Scholar
  10. Hildebrandt AG, Roots J, Speck M, Saalfrank K, Kewitz H (1975) Evaluation of in vivo parameters of drug metabolizing enzyme activity in man after administration of clemastine, phenobarbital or placebo. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 8: 327–336Google Scholar
  11. Hunter J, Maxwell JD, Stewart DA, Williams R (1971) Altered calcium metabolism in epileptic children on anticonvulsants. Br Med J 4: 202–204Google Scholar
  12. Hunter J, Burnham WR, Chasseau LF, Down W (1974) Changes ind-glucaric acid excretion in relationship to alterations in the rate of antipyrin metabolism in man. Biochem Pharmacol 23: 2480–2483Google Scholar
  13. Ishidate M, Matsui M, Okada M (1965) Biochemical studies on glucuronic acid and glucaric acid. I. Quantitative chemical determination ofd-glucaric acid in urine. Anal Biochem 11: 176–186Google Scholar
  14. Latham AN (1975) Effect of in vitro changes in urinary pH on the enzymatic measurement and daily variation in excretion ofd-glucaric acid. J Pharm Pharmacol 27: 612–615Google Scholar
  15. March J, Turner WJ, Shanley I, Field J (1974) Values of urinary excretion ofd-glucaric acid by normal individuals. Clin Chem 20: 1155–1158Google Scholar
  16. Marsh CA (1963) Metabolism ofd-glucuronolactone in mammalian systems. Identification ofd-glucaric acid as a normal constitutent of urine. Biochem J 86: 77–86Google Scholar
  17. Mehltretter CL (1963)d-Glucaric acid. In: Whistler RL, Wolfrom ML (ed) Methods of carbohydrate chemistry, vol. II. Academic Press, New York, pp 46–48Google Scholar
  18. Mowat AP (1968) Developmental effects on liverd-glucuronolactone dehydrogenase levels and ond-glucaric acid excretion in urine; hormonal effects ond-glucaric acid excretion in urine. J Endocrinol 42: 585–590Google Scholar
  19. Roots J (1979) Effect of rifampicin on urinary excretion of 6-β-hydroxycortisol and glucaric acid in man and animal. Naunyn Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol 307: Suppl R 72Google Scholar
  20. Simmons CJ, Davis M, Dordoni B, Williams R (1974) Urinaryd-glucaric acid assay by an improved enzymatic method procedure. Clin Chim Acta 51: 47–51Google Scholar
  21. Sotaniemi EA, Medzihradsky F, Eliasson G (1974) Glucaric acid as an indicator of use of enzyme inducing drugs. Clin Pharmacol Ther 15: 417–423Google Scholar
  22. Sweeley CC, Bentley R, Makita M, Wells WW (1963) Gasliquid chromatography of the trimethylsilyl derivatives of sugar and related substances. J Am Chem Soc 85: 2497–2507Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Fiedler
    • 1
    • 2
  • E. Schröter
    • 1
    • 2
  • H. Cramer
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Abteilung Klinische NeurologieKlinikum der Albert-Ludwigs-UniversitätGermany
  2. 2.Neurophysiologie, Freiburg im BreisgauGermany

Personalised recommendations