Advertisement

Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 31, Issue 1–2, pp 215–221 | Cite as

Storage and release of major ionic contaminants from the snowpack in the Turkey Lakes Watershed

  • R. C. Semkin
  • D. S. Jeffries
Article

Abstract

The chemistry of the snowpack and snowmelt was investigated at the Turkey Lakes Watershed during the spring melt period in 1985. Ions in the snowmelt were 2 to 10 times more concentrated than those in the pre-melt snowpack and approximately 50% of the H+, SO4 and NO3 were lost from the snowpack with the first 30% of the melt. Rainfall flowed directly through the snow cover even during the early stages of the melt. Four rain events, which accounted for only 18% of the flowthrough collected, were responsible for about 50% of the H+ and SO4 and 37% of the NO3 ions exported from the snowpack. Sulphate to nitrate equivalent ratios in the pre-melt snowpack were generally about 0.6 but an enrichment of S04 relative to N03 in atmospheric deposition during the spring (SO4:NO3 > 1) resulted in snowmelt with an increasing SO4 content relative to NO3.

Keywords

Sulphate Nitrate Turkey Snow Cover Atmospheric Deposition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Department of the Environment: 1979, Analytical Methods Manual. Inland Waters Directorate, Water Quality Branch, Ottawa, Canada.Google Scholar
  2. Galloway, J.N. and Dillon, P.J.: 1983, Effects of acid deposition: the importance of nitrogen. In:Ecological Effects of Acid Deposition, National Swedish Envir. Protection Bd., Rept. PM 16 6, Berlings Arloev, Solna, Sweden, p. 145–160.Google Scholar
  3. Jeffries, D.S. and Semkin, R.G.: 1982, Basin description and information pertinent to mass balance studies of the Turkey Lakes Wateshed. Turkey Lakes Watershed Unpublished Report No. TLW-82-O1, 34 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Jeffries, D.S. and Semkin, R.G.: 1983, Changes in snowpack, stream and lake chemistry during snowmelt in the Turkey Lakes Watershed. Proceedings of Internat'l Symposium on Acid Precipitation. Lindau, FRG, VDI-Berichte 500, p. 377–386.Google Scholar
  5. Jeffries, D.S.: 1984, Atmospheric deposition of pollutants in the Sudbury area. In: J.O. Nriagu, Ed.,Environmental Impacts of Smelters. John Wiley and Sons, New York, p. 117–154.Google Scholar
  6. Johannessen, M. and Henriksen, A.: 1978, Chemistry of snowmelt: changes in concentration during melting.Wat. Resourc. Res. 14, 615.Google Scholar
  7. Johannessen, M., Skartvert, A. and Wright, R.F.: 1980, Streamwater chemistry before, during, and after snowmelt. Proc. Int. Conf. Ecol. Impact Acid Precip., SNSF Project, Sandefjord, Norway, p. 224–225.Google Scholar
  8. Semkin, R.G. and Jeffries, D.S.: 1985, Bulk deposition of ions in the Turkey Lakes Watershed. Turkey Lakes Watershed Unpublished Report No. TLW-85-O1, 24 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. C. Semkin
    • 1
  • D. S. Jeffries
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Contaminants DivisionNational Water Research InstituteBurlingtonCanada

Personalised recommendations