E-vector discrimination by the goldfish optic tectum
- 43 Downloads
Because behavioral evidence indicates that fishes can perceivee-vector direction in plane polarized light, intracellular recordings were made on bipolar cells, ganglion cells, amacrine cells and horizontal cells in the goldfish retina. In flattened retinal fragments stimulated with polarized flashes no evidence for significante-vector sensitivities was found.
Dichroism could not be demonstrated in the cornea, lens or other dioptric elements of this fish eye.
Finally extracellular spike recordings of single units in the goldfish optic tectum were made to determine whethere-vector discrimination could be measured in the output of the intact eye in the living fish. 500 msec test flashes were presented to the retina with narrow band spectral red, green and blue light (quantum equalized) as well as with white light over a 4–5 log unit range of intensities.
Practically all tectal cells of the 47 successfully recorded showed some sensitivity toe-vector direction. The response function was roughly sinusoidal with maxima and minima 90° apart. Maximal responses to polarization plane orientation were found in all sixe-vector directions tested. Consequently an analyzer without discrete channels for particular polarization planes must be present quite different from that present in many rhabdom bearing eyes.
E-vector direction influenced various parameters of the tectal responses (on, off, sustained, etc.) in some cases in the same direction and in other cases in the opposite direction. Both excitatory and inhibitory components, as well as color coded ones, were affected.
Intensity response curves indicate polarized light sensitivity ratios ranging from 1.4 to 31.7, with a mean of 8.2 for 13 cases.
KeywordsBipolar Cell Amacrine Cell Polarization Plane Test Flash Tectal Cell
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Adler, K., Taylor, D.H.: Extraocular perception of polarized light by orienting salamanders. J. comp. Physiol.87, 203–212 (1973)Google Scholar
- Boehm, G.: Über ein neues entoptisches Phänomen im polarisierten Licht. “Periphere” Polarisationsbüschel. Acta ophthal. (Kbh.)18, 143–169 (1940)Google Scholar
- Dill, P.A.: Perception of polarized light by yearling sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada28, 1319–1322 (1971)Google Scholar
- Eguchi, E., Waterman, T.H.: Cellular basis for polarized light perception in the spider crab,Libinia. Z. Zellforsch.84, 87–101 (1968)Google Scholar
- Forward, R.B., Jr., Horch, K.W., Waterman, T.H.: Visual orientation at the water surface by the teleostZenarchopterus. Biol. Bull.143, 112–126 (1972)Google Scholar
- Forward, R.B., Waterman, T.H.: Evidence fore-vector and light intensity discrimination by the teleostDermogenys. J. comp. Physiol.87, 189–202 (1973)Google Scholar
- Groot, C.: On the orientation of young sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during their seaward migration out of the lakes. Behaviour, Suppl.14, 198 pp. Leiden: Brill. 1965Google Scholar
- Haidinger, W.: Ueber das direkte Erkennen des polarisierten Lichts und der Lage der Polarisationsbene. Ann. Physik. Chemie63, 29–39 (1844)Google Scholar
- Kleerekoper, H., Matis, J.H., Timms, A.M., Gensler, P.: Locomotor response of the goldfish to polarized light and itse-vector. J. comp. Physiol.86, 27–36 (1973)Google Scholar
- Kreithen, M.L., Keeton, W.T.: Detection of polarized light by the homing pigeonColumba livia J. comp. Physiol.89, 83–92 (1974)Google Scholar
- LeGrand, Y.: Sur deux propriétés des sources de lumière polarisèe. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 222, 939–941 (1936)Google Scholar
- LeGrand, Y.: Recherches sur la diffusion de la lumière dans l'oeil humain. Rev. d'Optique16, 201–214 (1937)Google Scholar
- Sugawara, K., Katagiri, Y., Tomita, T.: Polarized light responses from octopus single retinular cells. J. Fac. Sci., Hokkaido Univ. Ser. VI. Zool.17, 581–586 (1971)Google Scholar
- Tasaki, K., Karita, K.: Discrimination of horizontal and vertical planes of polarized light by the cephalopod retina. Japan. J. Physiol.16, 205–216 (1966)Google Scholar
- Taylor, D.H., Adler, K.: Spatial orientation by salamanders using plane-polarized light. Science181, 285–287 (1973)Google Scholar
- Tomita, T.: Electrical response of single photoreceptors. Proc. IEEE56, 1015–1023 (1968)Google Scholar
- Waterman, T. H.: The problem of polarized light sensitivity (Abstr.) Proc. XVth Internat. Cong. Zool., London, 1958, pp. 537–539 (1959)Google Scholar
- Waterman, T.H.: Polarimeters in animals. In: Planets, Stars and Nebulae (T. Gehrels, ed), p. 472–494. Tucson: University of Arizona Press 1974Google Scholar
- Waterman, T.H., Aoki, K.:E-vector sensitivity patterns in the goldfish optic tectum. J. comp. Physiol.,95, 13–27 (1974)Google Scholar
- Waterman, T.H., Forward, R.B., Jr.: Field evidence for polarized light sensitivity in the fishZenarchopterus. Nature (Lond.)228, 85–87 (1970)Google Scholar
- Waterman, T.H., Forward, R.B., Jr.: Field demonstration of polarotaxis in the fishZenarch-opterus. J. exp. Zool.180, 33–54 (1972)Google Scholar
- Waterman, T.H., Horch, K.W.: Mechanism of polarized light perception. Science154, 467–457 (1966)Google Scholar