Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 125–139 | Cite as

Impedance parameters and the state-of charge. I. Nickel-cadmium battery

  • S. Sathyanarayana
  • S. Venugopalan
  • M. L. Gopikanth


The problem of nondestructive determination of the state-of-charge of nickel-cadmium batteries has been examined experimentally as well as theoretically from the viewpoint of internal impedance. It is shown that the modulus of the impedance is mainly controlled by diffusion at all states of charge. Even so, a prediction of the state of charge is possible if the equivalent series/parallel capacitance or the alternating current phase shift is measured at a sufficiently low a.c. test frequency (5–30 Hz) which also avoids inductive effects. These results are explained on the basis of a uniform transmission-line analog equivalent circuit for the battery electrodes.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [l]
    S. Lerner, H. Lennon and H. Seiger, ‘Power Sources’, Vol. 3, (ed. D. H. Collins) Pergamon Press (1971) p. 135.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    H. Lurie, H. N. Seiger and R. C. Shair,Proceedings of 17th Annual Power Source Conference (1963) p. 110.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    R. H. W. Sieh,Electrochim. Acta. 13 (1964) 2139.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    J. J. Winter, J. Breslin, R. L. Ross and H. A. Leupold,J. Electrochem. Soc. 122 (1975) 1434.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    D. C. Jones, NTIS, US Department of Commerce Report No. AFAPL-TR-75-83 (1975).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    ‘Eveready Battery Applications and Engineering Data”, Copyright, Union Carbide Corp., New York (1971).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    W. J. Hammer, ‘Primary Battery’, Vol. 2, (eds. N. C. Cahoon and G. W. Heise), The Electrochemical Society USA (1976) p. 429.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    R. B. Naugle and A. W. Speyers,Proceedings of 13th Annual Power Source Conference (1959) p. 97.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    E. Dowgiallo and F. Belvoir,Proceedings of the Annual Battery Workshop, Goddard Space Flight Centre (1974) p. 32.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    A. Fleischer, ‘Power Sources’ Vol. 3 (ed. D. H. Collins) Pergamon Press (1971).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    N. Latner,Rev. Sci. Inst. 40 (1969) 364.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    R. R. Secunde and A. G. Birchenough,Chem. Abstr. 73 (1970) 83 023r.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    K. J. Euler,Electrochim. Acta 17 (1972) 619.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    S. Sathyanarayana, S. Venugopalan and M. L. Gopikanth,J. Appl. Electrochem. 8 (1978) 479.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    M. Sluyters-Rehbach and J. H. Sluyters, ‘Electroanalytical Chemistry’, Vol. 8 (ed. A. J. Bard) Marcel Dekker Inc, (1971) p. 157.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    S. K. Rangarajan,J. Electroanalyt. Chem. 22 (1969) 89.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    R. de Levie, ‘Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering’ Vol. 6 (eds. P. Delahay and C. W. Tobias), Interscience (1967) p. 329.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall Ltd. 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Sathyanarayana
    • 1
  • S. Venugopalan
    • 1
  • M. L. Gopikanth
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Inorganic and Physical ChemistryIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations