Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 177–186 | Cite as

Hypochlorite electro-generation. I. A parametric study of a parallel plate electrode cell

  • G. H. Kelsall


A parametric study is described of a parallel plate Ti/PbO2/x mol dm−3 NaCl/Ti hypochlorite cell, for which the cell voltage, current efficiency, and energy yield (mol ClO kWh−1) were examined as functions of current density, chloride concentration, and electrolyte flow rate, inlet temperature and pH.

The cell was found to behave ohmically, with current efficiencies of 85–99% for 0.5 mol dm−3 NaCl electrolyte, a typical chloride concentration for sea water. However, the hypochlorite energy decreased substantially with increased current density, reflecting the large contribution of the electrolyte ohmic potential drop to the cell voltage.

The behaviour of the Ti/PbO2 anode was found to be irreproducible, and low temperature (say ⩽ 278K)/high current density operation was irreversibly detrimental both in terms of the anode potential/cell voltage and current efficiency.


Hypochlorite Parametric Study Chloride Concentration Parallel Plate Current Efficiency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



polarization resistance (ohm m2)


interelectrode spacing to minimize the cell voltage (m)


volume fraction of gas at levelx f


average volume fraction of gas


Faraday constant (96487 C mol−1)


electrode length/height (m)


current density at positionx (A m−2)


average current density (A m−2)


cell current (A)


pressure of gas evolved at electrodes (N m−2)


universal gas constant (8.314 J mol−1K−1 )


total ohmic resistance of electrolyte and gas in cell (ohm)


bubble rise rate (m s−1)

\(t_{Cl^ - } \)

chloride ion transport number


electrolyte temperature (K)


electrode width (m)


distance from bottom of electrodes (m)


number of Faradays per mole of gas evolved


overpotential at positionx (V)


resistivity of gas free electrolyte (ohm m)


resistivity at levelx of electrolyte containing bubbles (ohm m)


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Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall Ltd. 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. H. Kelsall
    • 1
  1. 1.Electricity Council Research CentreCapenhurstUK

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