Sound production in the cockroach,Gromphadorhina portentosa: The sound-producing apparatus
- 458 Downloads
The giant Madagascar cockroach,Gromphadorhina portentosa, hisses by expelling air from a pair of specialized abdominal spiracles. The anatomy and innervation of serially homologous respiratory and sound-producing spiracles were compared in order to determine the evolutionary steps by which a new behavior has developed.
The trachea leading to the sound-producing (fourth) spiracle shows a constriction proximally; distally it is greatly elongated with a conical bore (Fig. 2). These features, which are lacking in other spiracles, are sufficient to account for the character of the sound (Fig. 10).
The motoneurons innervating both types of spiracles were located by axonal diffusion of cobalt, and their morphology was determined in wholemounted ganglia. The number, ganglionic locations, and in some cases branching patterns of motoneurons serving the sound-producing and respiratory spiracles were essentially identical (Figs. 4, 5, 6).
Physiological activity was recorded along spiracle nerves and within spiracle muscle fibers; four units were identified for each spiracle, agreeing with the number of cells located anatomically. These included, for each abdominal spiracle, an opener exciter motoneuron, two closer exciter motoneurons, and one closer inhibitor motoneuron (Figs. 7, 8).
During normal respiration the output of these 4 units had similar phase relationships in all abdominal spiracles which were examined; lower firing rates in the motoneurons innervating the hissing spiracles rendered these nonfunctional during normal respiration (Fig. 9).
The findings are consistent with conservation of motor innervation and of central pattern generators during evolution.
KeywordsCobalt Respiration Firing Rate Physiological Activity Phase Relationship
first abdominal ganglion
second abdominal ganglion
median neurohaemal organ
first segmentai root (abdominal ganglia)
first thoracic ganglion
third thoracic ganglion
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Altman, J.S., Tyrer, N.M.: Insect flight as a system for the study of the development of neuronal connections. In: Experimental analysis of insect behaviour. Barton Browne, L. (ed.), pp. 159–179. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1974Google Scholar
- Bacon, J.P., Altman, J.S.: A silver intensification method for cobalt-filled neurones in wholemount preparations. Brain Res.138, 359–363 (1977)Google Scholar
- Bentley, D.R.: Genetic control of an insect neuronal network. Science174, 1139–1141 (1971)Google Scholar
- Bentley, D.R.: Postembryonic development of insect motor systems. In: Developmental neurobiology of arthropods. Young, D. (ed.), pp. 147–177. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1973Google Scholar
- Bentley, D.R., Hoy, R.R.: Postembryonic development of adult motor patterns in crickets: a neural analysis. Science170, 1409–1411 (1970)Google Scholar
- Case, J.F.: The median nerves and cockroach spiracular function. J. Insect Physiol.1, 85–94 (1957)Google Scholar
- Dumortier, B.: L'émission sonore dans le genreGromphadorhina brunner (Blattodea, Perisphaeriidae), étude morphologique et biologique. Bull. Soc. Zool. France90, 89–101 (1965)Google Scholar
- Eisner, T.: Spray mechanism of the cockroachDiploptera punctata. Science128, 148–149 (1958)Google Scholar
- Evans, P.D.: The uptake ofl-glutamate by the central nervous system of the cockroach,Periplaneta americana. J. Exp. Biol.62, 55–67 (1975)Google Scholar
- Goodman, C.S.: Neuron duplications and deletions in locust clones and clutches. Science197, 1384–1386 (1977)Google Scholar
- Hoy, R.R., Hahn, J., Paul, R.C.: Hybrid cricket auditory behavior: evidence for genetic coupling in animal communication. Science195, 82–84 (1977)Google Scholar
- Kammer, A.E., Rheuben, M.B.: Adult motor patterns produced by moth pupae during development. J. Exp. Biol.65, 65–84 (1976)Google Scholar
- Levi-Montalcini, R., Chen, J.S., Seshan, K.R., Aloe, L.: An invitro approach to the insect nervous system. In: Developmental neurobiology of arthropods. Young, D. (ed.), pp. 5–36. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1973Google Scholar
- Lewis, D.B.: The physiology of the Tettigoniid ear. I. The implication of the anatomy of the ear to its function in sound reception. J. Exp. Biol.60, 821–837 (1974)Google Scholar
- Lighthill, M.J.: On sound generated aerodynamically. I. General theory. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A211, 564–587 (1952)Google Scholar
- Miller, P.L.: Inhibitory nerves to insect spiracles. Nature (Lond.)221, 171–173 (1969)Google Scholar
- Miller, P.L.: Spatial and temporal changes in the coupling of cockroach spiracles to ventilation. J. Exp. Biol.59, 137–148 (1973)Google Scholar
- Miller, P.L.: Respiration-aerial gas transport. In: The physiology of insecta, 2nd ed., Vol. VI. Rockstein, M. (ed.), pp. 345–502. New York, London: Academic Press 1974Google Scholar
- Morse, A.P.: Further researches on North American Acridiidae. Publ. Carnegie Inst. Wash.68, 3–54 (1907)Google Scholar
- Nelson, M.C., Fraser, J.: Sound production in the cockroach,Gromphadorhina portentosa: Evidence for communication by hissing, (in preparation)Google Scholar
- Nocke, H.: Physical and physiological properties of the Tettigoniid (“grasshopper”) ear. J. Comp. Physiol.100, 25–57 (1975)Google Scholar
- Pearson, K.G., Bergman, S.J.: Common inhibitory motoneurones in insects. J. Exp. Biol.50, 445–471 (1969)Google Scholar
- Pitman, R.M., Tweedle, C.D., Cohen, M.J.: Branching of central neurons: intracellular cobalt injection for light and electron microscopy. Science176, 412–414 (1972)Google Scholar
- Roederer, J.G.: Introduction to the physics and psychophysics of music (ed. 2). Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1975Google Scholar
- Roth, L.M., Stay, B.: The occurrence of para-quinones in some arthropods, with emphasis on the quinone-secreting tracheal glands ofDiploptera punctata (Blattaria). J. Insect Physiol.1, 305–318 (1958)Google Scholar
- Shankland, D.L.: Nerves and muscles of the pregenital abdominal segments of the American cockroach,Periplaneta americana (L.). J. Morph.117, 353–386 (1965)Google Scholar
- Simmons, P.: The neuronal control of dragonfly flight I. Anatomy. J. Exp. Biol.71, 123–140 (1977)Google Scholar
- Strausfeld, N.J., Obermayer, M.: Resolution of intraneuronal and transynaptic migration of cobalt in the insect visual and central nervous systems. J. Comp. Physiol.110, 1–12 (1976)Google Scholar
- Taylor, H.M., Truman, J.W.: Metamorphosis of the abdominal ganglia of the tobacco hornworm,Manduca sexta. J. Comp. Physiol.90, 367–388 (1974)Google Scholar
- Truman, J.W.: Development and hormonal release of adult behavior patterns in silkmoths. J. Comp. Physiol.107, 39–48 (1976)Google Scholar
- Truman, J.W., Reiss, S.E.: Dendritic reorganization of an identified motoneuron during metamorphosis of the tobacco hornworm moth. Science192, 477–479 (1976)Google Scholar
- Tyrer, N.M., Bell, E.M.: The intensification of cobalt-filled neurone profiles using a modification of Timm's sulphide-silver method. Brain Res.73, 151–155 (1974)Google Scholar
- Willows, A.O.D., Dorsett, D.A.: Evolution of swimming behavior inTritonia and its neurophysiological correlates. J. Comp. Physiol.100, 117–133 (1975)Google Scholar