Applied Physics A

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 1–22 | Cite as

Transition metals in silicon

  • Eicke R. Weber
Invited Paper


A review is given on the diffusion, solubility and electrical activity of 3d transition metals in silicon. Transition elements (especially, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) diffuse interstitially and stay in the interstitial site in thermal equilibrium at the diffusion temperature. The parameters of the liquidus curves are identical for the Si:Ti — Si:Ni melts, indicating comparable silicon-metal interaction for all these elements. Only Cr, Mn, and Fe could be identified in undisturbed interstitial sites after quenching, the others precipitated or formed complexes. The 3d elements can be divided into two groups according to the respective enthalpy of formation of the solid solution. The distinction can arise from different charge states of these impurities at the diffusion temperature. For the interstitial 3d atoms remaining after quenching, reliable energy levels are established from the literature and compared with recent calculations.


61.70 Wp 71.55 Fr 82.60 s 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eicke R. Weber
    • 1
  1. 1.Abteilung für Metallphysik, II. Physikalisches InstitutUniversität zu KölnKöln 41Fed. Rep. Germany

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