Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 429–438 | Cite as

Nodulation of electrodeposited copper due to suspended particulate

  • T. N. Andersen
  • C. H. Pitt
  • L. S. Livingston


Cathode nodulation was studied by electrodepositing copper at 38 mA cm−2 from acid sulphate baths which contained 0.5 g dm−3 of various suspended particulate. The conductive particulates, such as copper and graphite, produced dense nodulation at temperatures of 50° C and less. Antimony and silver powders caused pitting as well as nodulation. Non-conducting powders such as lead sulphate, lead dioxide, and gypsum produced no nodulation, and correspondingly were occluded only to a very small extent. Once formed, the nodules occluded very large concentrations of any particulate present. The nodulation decreased markedly with an increase in temperature, particularly from 50° to 70° C. With increasing Cu2+ ion concentration, the nodulation decreased nominally. These effects and characteristics of the nodulated deposits are discussed.


Copper Nodule Dioxide Graphite Acid Sulphate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    C. W. Eichrodt and J. H. Schloen, in ‘Copper — The Science and Technology of the Metal, Its Alloys and Compounds’, (edited by A. Butts), Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York, (1954) Ch. 8.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    T. B. Braun, J. R. Rawling and K. J. Richards, in ‘Extractive Metallurgy of Copper — International Symposium’, Vol. 2, AIME, New York, (1976) pp. 511–24.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    ‘Kirk-Othmer: Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology’, Vol. 6, 3rd edn., John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York (1979) pp. 859–62.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    W. R. Hopkins, G. Eggett and J. B. Schuffham, in ‘International Symposium on Hydrometallurgy’, (edited by D. J. I. Evans and R. S. Shoemaker) AIME, New York, (1973) pp. 127–54.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    J. M. Steele, in ‘Industrial Electrochemical Processes’, (edited by A. T. Kuhn) Elsevier Publ. Co., New York, (1971) Ch. 7.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    J. H. Schloen, S. S. Forbes and S. B. Tuwiner, in ‘Extractive Metallurgy of Copper, Nickel and Cobalt’, AIME Interscience, New York, (1960).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    J. O'M. Bockris and G. A. Razumney, ‘Fundamental Aspects of Electrocrystallization’, Plenum Press, New York, (1967) Chs. 11 and 12.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    R. Winand,Trans. Instn. Mining Metall. C 84, (1975) C67.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    L. Pauwels, PhD Thesis, University of Louvain, Louvain (1966).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Cl. Feneau and R. Breckpot,Ind. Chim. Belge 32 (1967) 241.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    L. S. Livingston, M.S. Thesis, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (1980).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    F. K. Sautter,J. Electrochem. Soc. 110 (1963) 557.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    E. S. Chen, G. R. Lakshminarayanan and F. K. Sautter,Met. Trans. 2 (1971) 937.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    M. Guglielmi,J. Electrochem. Soc. 119 (1972) 1009.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    J. P. Celis and J. R. Roos,ibid. 124 (1977) 1508.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    N. Ibl, in ‘Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering’, Vol. 2 (edited by C. W. Tobias), Interscience Publishers, New York, (1966), Ch. 3.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    O. Kardos and D. G. Foulke, inibid. 217.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    J. O'M. Bockris and A. K. N. Reddy, ‘Modern Electrochemistry’, Vol. 2, Plenum Press, New York, (1972) 1058.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Idem, ibid. 1219.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    H. Fischer, ‘Electrolytische Abscheidung and Electrokristallisation von Metallen’, Springer Verlag, Berlin, (1954) 729.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    D. C. Price and W. G. Davenport,Met. Trans. B,12B (1981) 636.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall Ltd 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. N. Andersen
    • 1
  • C. H. Pitt
    • 2
  • L. S. Livingston
    • 2
  1. 1.Kennecott, Process TechnologySalt Lake City
  2. 2.Department of Metallurgy and Metallurgical EngineeringUniversity of UtahSalt Lake City

Personalised recommendations