Applied Physics A

, Volume 37, Issue 3, pp 121–138 | Cite as

Laser generated microstructures

  • Y. Rytz-Froidevaux
  • R. P. Salathé
  • H. H. Gilgen
Invited Paper

Abstract

Deposition and etching processes based on the interaction of laser light with a substrate surface and molecules of the surrounding ambient are discussed in this tutorial review. This “laser writing” approach is based on photolytic, pyrolytic, or photoelectrochemical microreactions. The fundamental properties of such reactions and corresponding processing parameters (e.g. deposition or etch rate, resolution) are discussed. Important published results for deposition by photolysis, pyrolysis, and etching are summarized in the form of tables. A special list of potential applications for such techniques and a list of all materials used thus far for laser deposition and etching are included.

PACS

81.40 82.65 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1a).
    A survey of recent literature can be found, e.g., in: Technical Digest of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Cleo' 82, Phoenix, rizona (Optical Society of America, Washington DC 1982)Google Scholar
  2. 1b).
    A survey of recent literature can be found, e.g., in: Technical Digest of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Cleo' 83, Baltimore, Maryland (Optical Society of America, Washington DC 1983)Google Scholar
  3. 1c).
    A survey of recent literature can be found, e.g., in: Proc. of the Materials Research Society Annual Meeting, Boston, Massachusetts, 1982,Laser-Solid Interactions and Transient Thermal Processing of Materials, ed. by J. Narayan, W.L. Brown, R.A. Lemons (North-Holland, New York 1983) Vol. 13Google Scholar
  4. 1d).
    A survey of recent literature can be found, e.g., in: Proc. of the Materials Research Society Annual Meeting, Boston, Massachusetts 1983,Energy Beam-Solid Interactions and Transient Thermal Processing, ed. by J.C.C. Fan, N.M. Johnson (North-Holland, New York 1984) Vol. 23Google Scholar
  5. 2.
    V.R. Porter: “Laser microdeposition from metallopolymers”, paper presented at the Workshop on the Interaction of Laser Radiation with Surfaces for Application to Microelectronics, MIT Statton Student Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts, May 4–5, 1981Google Scholar
  6. 3.
    M.A. Bösch, K.S. Kang, S. Hackwood, G. Beni, J.L. Shay: Appl. Phys. Lett.41, 103 (1982)Google Scholar
  7. 4.
    R. Oren, S.K. Ghandi: J. Appl. Phys.42, 752 (1971)Google Scholar
  8. 5.
    V.P. Veiko, G.A. Kotov, M.N. Libenson, M.N. Nikitin: Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR208, 587 (1973)Google Scholar
  9. 6.
    See, e.g., K.J. Laidler: J. Chem. Phys.10, 43 (1942) and references thereinGoogle Scholar
  10. 7.
    L.H. Kaplan: J. Phys. Chem.68, 94 (1964)Google Scholar
  11. 8.
    M.W. Jones, L.J. Rigby, D. Ryan: Nature212, 177 (1966)Google Scholar
  12. 9.
    M. Kumagawa, H. Sunami, T. Terasaki, J. Nishizawa: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.7, 1332 (1968)Google Scholar
  13. 9a.
    M. Kumagawa, H. Sunami, J. Nishizawa: J. Electrochem. Soc.117, 907 (1970)Google Scholar
  14. 10.
    C.P. Christensen, K.M. Lakin: Appl. Phys. Lett.32, 254 (1978)Google Scholar
  15. 11.
    T.F. Deutsch, D.J. Ehrlich, R.M. Osgood, Jr.: Appl. Phys. Lett.35, 175 (1979)Google Scholar
  16. 12.
    D. Bäuerle: InSurface Studies with Lasers, ed. by F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, M.E. Lippitsch, Springer Ser. Chem. Phys. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1983) Vol. 33, p. 178Google Scholar
  17. 13.
    R.M. Osgood, Jr.: Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem.34, 7701 (1983)Google Scholar
  18. 14a).
    D.J. Ehrlich, J.Y. Tsao: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B1, 969 (1963)Google Scholar
  19. 14b).
    D.J. Ehrlich, J.Y. Tsao: InVLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, ed. by N. Einspruch (Academic, New York 1983) Vol. 17, p. 129Google Scholar
  20. 15.
    D. Bäuerle (ed.):Laser Processing and Diagnostics, Springer Ser. Chem. Phys.33 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1984)Google Scholar
  21. 16.
    Y. Rytz-Froidevaux, R.P. Salathé, H.H. Gilgen: Phys. Lett.84A, 216 (1981)Google Scholar
  22. 17.
    D.J. Ehrlich, R.M. Osgood, Jr.: Chem. Phys. Lett.79, 381 (1981)Google Scholar
  23. 18.
    I.J. Rigby: Trans. Faraday Soc.65, 2421 (1969)Google Scholar
  24. 19.
    T.J. Chuang: J. Vac. Sci. Technol.21, 800 (1982)Google Scholar
  25. 20.
    V.S. Letokhov, A.A. Makarov: Sov. Phys. Usp.24, 366 (1981)Google Scholar
  26. 21.
    D.J. Ehrlich, R.M. Osgood, Jr., T.F. Deutsch: IEEE QE-16, 1233 (1980)Google Scholar
  27. 22.
    C.J. Chen, R.M. Osgood, Jr.: Chem. Phys. Lett.98, 363 (1983)Google Scholar
  28. 23.
    C.H. Nicholls, P.A. Leermakers: Adv. Photochem.8, 315 (1971)Google Scholar
  29. 24.
    Y. Rytz-Froidevaux, R.P. Salathé, H.H. Gilgen, H.P. Weber: Appl. Phys. A27, 133 (1982)Google Scholar
  30. 25.
    T.H. Wood, J.C. White, B.A. Thacker: InLaser Diagnostics and Photochemical Processing for Semiconductor Devices, ed. by R.M. Osgood, S.R.J. Brueck, H.R. Schlossberg (North-Holland, New York 1983) Vol. 17, p. 35Google Scholar
  31. 26.
    T.H. Wood, J.C. White, B.A. Thacker: Appl. Phys. Lett.42, 409 (1983)Google Scholar
  32. 27.
    S.R.J. Brueck, D.J. Ehrlich: Phys. Rev. Lett.48, 1678 (1982)Google Scholar
  33. 28.
    R.M. Osgood, D.J. Ehrlich: Opt. Lett.7, 385 (1982)Google Scholar
  34. 29.
    N. Tsukada, S. Sugata, H. Saitoh, Y. Mita: Appl. Phys. Lett.43, 189 (1983)Google Scholar
  35. 30.
    H.H. Gilgen, D. Podlesnik, C.J. Chen, R.M. Osgood, Jr.: InLaser-Controlled Chemical Processing of Surfaces, ed. by A.W. Johnson, D.J. Ehrlich, H.R. Schlossberg (North-Holland, New York 1984) Vol. 29, p. 139Google Scholar
  36. 31.
    C.J. Chen, R.M. Osgood, Jr.: Phys. Rev. Lett.50, 1705 (1983)Google Scholar
  37. 32.
    S.L. McCall, P.M. Platzman, P.A. Wolff: Phys. Lett.77 A, 381 (1980)Google Scholar
  38. 33.
    M. Lax: J. Appl. Phys.48, 3919 (1977)Google Scholar
  39. 34.
    I.P. Herman, R.A. Hyde, B.M. McWilliams, A.H. Weisberg, L.L. Wood:In[Ref. 25 In, p. 9]Google Scholar
  40. 34a.
    B.M. McWilliams, I.P. Herman, F. Mitlitsky, R.A. Hyde, L.L. Wood: Appl. Phys. Lett.43, 946 (1983)Google Scholar
  41. 35.
    R.J. von Gutfeld, E.E. Tynan, R.L. Melcher, S.E. Blum: Appl. Phys. Lett.35, 651 (1979)Google Scholar
  42. 36.
    R.J. von Gutfeld, R.E. Acosta, L.T. Romankiw: IBM J. Res. Develop.26, 136 (1982)Google Scholar
  43. 37.
    J.Cl. Puippe, R.E. Acosta, R.J. von Gutfeld: J. Electrochem. Soc.128, 2539 (1981)Google Scholar
  44. 38.
    T.J. Chuang: J. Chem. Phys.74, 1453 (1981)Google Scholar
  45. 39.
    T.J. Chuang: J. Chem. Phys.72, 6303 (1980)Google Scholar
  46. 40.
    T.J. Chuang: IBM J. Res. Develop.26, 145 (1982)Google Scholar
  47. 41.
    R.J. von Gutfeld, E.E. Tynan, L.T. Romankiw: Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, Los Angeles, California (Electrochem. Soc., Los Angeles 1979) Vol. 79 (2), Extended Abstract 472Google Scholar
  48. 42.
    F. Kuhn-Kuhnenfeld: J. Electrochem. Soc.119, 1063 (1972)Google Scholar
  49. 43.
    D.V. Podlesnik, H.H. Gilgen, R.M. Osgood, Jr., A. Sanchez, V. Daneu: in [Ref. 25 In, p. 57]Google Scholar
  50. 44.
    J. Wallmark: Solid State Devices, Inst. of Physics Conf. Series25, 133 (1975)Google Scholar
  51. 45.
    D.V. Podlesnik, H.H. Gilgen, R.M. Osgood, Jr.: In [Ref. 30 In, p. 161]Google Scholar
  52. 46.
    Y. Rytz-Froidevaux, R.P. Salathé, H.H. Gilgen: In [Ref. 25In, p. 29]Google Scholar
  53. 47.
    H.S. Carlslaw, J.C. Jaeger:Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd ed. (Oxford U. Press, London 1959)Google Scholar
  54. 48.
    S.D. Allen: J. Appl. Phys.52, 6501 (1981)Google Scholar
  55. 49.
    D.J. Ehrlich, J.Y. Tsao: Appl. Phys. Lett.41, 297 (1982)Google Scholar
  56. 50.
    M. Hanabusa, A. Namiki, K. Yoshihara: Appl. Phys. Lett.35, 626 (1979)Google Scholar
  57. 51.
    R. Solanki, P.K. Boyer, J.E. Mahan, G.J. Collins: Appl. Phys. Lett.38, 572 (1981)Google Scholar
  58. 52.
    D.J. Ehrlich, R.M. Osgood, Jr., T.F. Deutsch: J. Electrochem. Soc.128, 2039 (1981)Google Scholar
  59. 53.
    D.J. Ehrlich, R.M. Osgood, Jr., T.F. Deutsch: Appl. Phys. Lett.38, 946 (1981)Google Scholar
  60. 54.
    R.H. Micheels, A.D. Darrow II, R.D. Rauh: Appl. Phys. Lett.39, 418 (1981)Google Scholar
  61. 55.
    W.E. Johnson, L.A. Schlie: Appl. Phys. Lett.40, 798 (1982)Google Scholar
  62. 56.
    G.A. Roche, P.K. Boyer, G.J. Collins: In [Ref. 1a, Paper WE2]Google Scholar
  63. 57.
    P.K. Boyer, C.A. Moore, R. Solanki, W.H. Ritchie, G.A. Roche, G.J. Collins: In [Ref. 25In, p. 119]Google Scholar
  64. 58.
    T.F. Deutsch, D.J. Silversmith, R.W. Mountain: In [Ref. 25In, p. 129]Google Scholar
  65. 59.
    R. Solanki, W.H. Ritchie, G.J. Collins: Appl. Phys. Lett.43, 454 (1983)Google Scholar
  66. 60.
    T.F. Deutsch, D.J. Silversmith, R.W. Mountain: In [Ref. 30In, p. 67]Google Scholar
  67. 61.
    A. Kitai, G.J. Wolga: In [Ref. 25 In, p. 141]Google Scholar
  68. 62.
    M.R. Aylett, J. Haigh: In [Ref. 25 In, p. 177Google Scholar
  69. 63.
    R.W. Andreatta, C.C. Abele, J.F. Osmundsen, J.G. Eden, D. Lubben, J.E. Greene: Appl. Phys. Lett.40, 183 (1982)Google Scholar
  70. 64.
    P.K. Boyer, G.A. Roche, W.H. Ritchie, G.J. Collins: Appl. Phys. Lett.40, 716 (1982)Google Scholar
  71. 65.
    R. Bilenchi, J. Gianinoni, M. Musci: J. Appl. Phys.53, 6479 (1982)Google Scholar
  72. 66.
    R. Bilenchi, M. Musci, R. Murri: SPIE459, 61 (1984)Google Scholar
  73. 67.
    R. Solanki, P.K. Boyer, G.J. Collins: Appl. Phys. Lett.41, 1048 (1982)Google Scholar
  74. 68.
    T.M. Mayer, G.J. Fisanick, T.S. Eichelberger IV: J. Appl. Phys.53, 8462 (1982)Google Scholar
  75. 69.
    N. Bottka, P.J. Walsh, R.Z. Dalbey: J. Appl. Phys.54, 1104 (1983)Google Scholar
  76. 70.
    T.L. Rose, D.M. Longendorfer, R.D. Rauh: Appl. Phys. Lett.42, 193 (1983)Google Scholar
  77. 71.
    J.Y. Tsao, R.A. Becker, D.J. Ehrlich, F.J. Leonberger: Appl. Phys. Lett.42, 559 (1983)Google Scholar
  78. 72.
    R. Solanki, G.J. Collins: Appl. Phys. Lett.42, 662 (1983)Google Scholar
  79. 73.
    A.R. Calloway, T.A. Galantowicz, W.R. Fenner: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A1(2), 534 (1983)Google Scholar
  80. 74.
    P.K. Boyer, C.A. Moore, R. Solanki, G.J. Collins: In [Ref. 1b, Paper TUF 2]Google Scholar
  81. 75.
    J.Y. Tsao, D.J. Ehrlich: Appl. Phys. Lett.42, 997 (1983)Google Scholar
  82. 76.
    T. Inoue, M. Konagai, K. Takahashi: Appl. Phys. Lett.43, 774 (1983)Google Scholar
  83. 77.
    D.B. Geohegan, A.W. McCown, J.G. Eden: In [Ref. 30 In, p. 93]Google Scholar
  84. 78.
    D.J. Ehrlich, R.M. Osgood, Jr., T.F. Deutsch: J. Vac. Sci. Technol.2, 23 (1982)Google Scholar
  85. 79.
    J. Haigh: J. Mat. Sci.18, 1072 (1983)Google Scholar
  86. 80.
    H.W. Thompson, J.W. Linnett: Proc. R. Soc. A156, 108 (1936)Google Scholar
  87. 81.
    C.J. Chen, R.M. Osgood, Jr.: J. Chem. Phys.81, 327 (1984)Google Scholar
  88. 82.
    S.J.C. Irvine, J.B. Mullin, D.J. Robbins, J.L. Glasper: In [Ref. 30, p. 253]Google Scholar
  89. 83.
    J. Connor, G. Greig, O.P. Strausz: J. Am. Chem. Soc.91, 5695 (1969)Google Scholar
  90. 84.
    L.M. Yeddanapalli, C.C. Schubert: J. Chem. Phys.14, 1 (1946)Google Scholar
  91. 85.
    E.W.R. Steacie:Atomic and Free Radical Reactions (Reinhold, New York 1954)Google Scholar
  92. 86.
    H.A. Skinner: Adv. Organometallic Chem.2, 49 (1964)Google Scholar
  93. 87.
    J.A. Kerr: Chem. Rev.66, 465 (1966)Google Scholar
  94. 88.
    J.K. Kochi:Organometallic Mechanisms and Catalysis (Academic, New York 1978)Google Scholar
  95. 89.
    H. van den Bergh et al. (private communication), Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne, Switzerland: Pt has been obtained by uv-photolysis of Pt bis hexafluoro acetyl-acetonateGoogle Scholar
  96. 90.
    Y. Rytz-Froidevaux, R.P. Salathé, H.H. Gilgen: Helv. Phys. Acta53, 638 (1980)Google Scholar
  97. 91.
    R.P. Salathé, Y. Rytz-Froidevaux, H.H. Gilgen, H.P. Weber: Visible light induced deposition of Cd on transparent substrates, in [2]Google Scholar
  98. 92.
    V.S. Antonov, V.S. Letokhov, A.N. Shibanov: Appl. Phys.25, 71 (1981)Google Scholar
  99. 93.
    T.J. Chuang: J. Chem. Phys.76, 3828 (1982)Google Scholar
  100. 93a.
    T.J. Chuang, H. Seki: Phys. Rev. Lett.49, 382 (1982)Google Scholar
  101. 94.
    S.D. Allen, J.O. Porteus, W.N. Faith: Appl. Phys. Lett.41, 416 (1982)Google Scholar
  102. 95.
    C. Arnone, V. Daneu, S. Riva-Sanseverino: Appl. Phys. Lett.37, 1012 (1980)Google Scholar
  103. 96.
    S.D. Allen, M. Bass: J. Vac. Sci. Technol.16, 431 (1979)Google Scholar
  104. 97.
    V. Baranauskas, C.I.Z. Mammana, R.E. Klinger, J.E. Greene: Appl. Phys. Lett.36, 930 (1980)Google Scholar
  105. 98.
    S.D. Allen: J. Appl. Phys.52, 6501 (1981)Google Scholar
  106. 99.
    G. Leyendecker, D. Bäuerle, P. Geittner, H. Lydtin: Appl. Phys. Lett.39, 921 (1981)Google Scholar
  107. 100.
    D.J. Ehrlich, R.M. Osgood, Jr., T.F. Deutsch: Appl. Phys. Lett.39, 957 (1981)Google Scholar
  108. 101.
    D. Bäuerle, I. Irsigler, G. Leyendecker, H. Noll, D. Wagner: Appl. Phys. Lett.40, 819 (1982)Google Scholar
  109. 102.
    R.F. Karlicek, V.M. Donnely, G.J. Collins: J. Appl. Phys.53, 1084 (1982)Google Scholar
  110. 103a).
    S.D. Allen, A.B. Trigubo: J. Appl. Phys.54, 1641 (1983)Google Scholar
  111. 103b).
    S.D. Allen, A.B. Trigubo, R.Y. Jan: In [Ref. 25, p. 207]Google Scholar
  112. 104.
    A.K. Al-Sufi, H.J. Eichler, J. Salk, H.J. Riedel: J. Appl. Phys.54, 3630 (1983)Google Scholar
  113. 105.
    D. Bäuerle, G. Leyendecker, D. Wagner, E. Bauser, Y.C. Lu: Appl. Phys. A30, 147 (1983)Google Scholar
  114. 106.
    W. Kräuter, D. Bäuerle, F. Fimberger: Appl. Phys. A31, 13 (1983)Google Scholar
  115. 107.
    R.B. Gerassimov, S.M. Metev, S.K. Savtchenko, G.A. Kotov, V.P. Veiko: Appl. Phys. B28, 266 (1983)Google Scholar
  116. 108.
    R.J. von Gutfeld, M.H. Gelchinski, L.T. Romankiw, D.R. Vigliotti: Appl. Phys. Lett.43, 876 (1983)Google Scholar
  117. 109.
    W. Roth, H. Kräutle, A. Krings, H. Beneking: In [Ref. 25 In, p. 193]Google Scholar
  118. 110.
    M.R. Baklanov, I.M. Beterov, S.M. Repisnkii, A.V. Rzhanov, V.P. Chebotaev, N.I. Yurshina: Sov. Phys. Dokl.19, 312 (1974)Google Scholar
  119. 111.
    L.V. Belyakov, D.N. Goryachev, M.N. Mizerov, E.L. Portnoi: Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys.19, 837 (1976)Google Scholar
  120. 112.
    Zh. I. Alferov, D.N. Goryachev, S.A. Gurevich, M.N. Mizerov, E.L. Portnoi, B.S. Ryvkin: Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys.21, 857 (1976)Google Scholar
  121. 113.
    L.L. Shernikova, V.I. Donin, S.M. Repinskii: Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett.3, 223 (1977)Google Scholar
  122. 114.
    D.J. Ehrlich, R.M. Osgood, Jr., T.F. Deutsch: Appl. Phys. Lett.36, 698 (1980)Google Scholar
  123. 115.
    J.I. Steinfeld, T.G. Anderson, C. Reiser, D.R. Denison, L.D. Hartsaug, J.R. Hollahan: J. Electrochem. Soc.127, 514 (1980)Google Scholar
  124. 116.
    R.W. Haynes, G.M. Netze, V.G. Kreismanis, L.F. Eastmann: Appl. Phys. Lett.37, 344 (1980)Google Scholar
  125. 117.
    D.J. Ehrlich, R.M. Osgood, Jr., T.F. Deutsch: Appl. Phys. Lett.38, 1018 (1981)Google Scholar
  126. 118.
    F.W. Ostermayer, Jr., P.A. Kohl: Appl. Phys. Lett.39, 76 (1981)Google Scholar
  127. 119.
    R.J. von Gutfeld, R.T. Hodgson: Appl. Phys. Lett.40, 352 (1982)Google Scholar
  128. 120.
    Y. Rytz-Froidevaux, H. Siegenthaler, R.P. Salathé, H.H. Gilgen: UnpublishedGoogle Scholar
  129. 121.
    R.M. Osgood, Jr., A. Sanchez-Rubio, D.J. Ehrlich, V. Daneu: Appl. Phys. Lett.40, 391 (1982)Google Scholar
  130. 122.
    A.W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum: IEEE EDL-4, 39 (1983)Google Scholar
  131. 123.
    G.C. Tisone, A.W. Johnson: Appl. Phys. Lett.42, 530 (1983)Google Scholar
  132. 124.
    J.Y. Tsao, D.J. Ehrlich: Appl. Phys. Lett.43, 146 (1983)Google Scholar
  133. 125.
    P.A. Moskowitz, D.R. Vigliotti, R.J. von Gutfeld: In [Ref. 1b, Paper FA1]Google Scholar
  134. 126.
    J.E. Bjorkholm, A.A. Ballman: In [Ref. 1b, Paper FA4]Google Scholar
  135. 127.
    A.W. Johnson, G.C. Tisone: In [Ref. 30, p. 145]Google Scholar
  136. 128.
    P. Brewer, S. Halle, R.M. Osgood: In [Ref. 30, p. 179]Google Scholar
  137. 129.
    D.V. Podlesnik, H.H. Gilgen, R.M. Osgood, Jr., A. Sanchez: Appl. Phys. Lett.43, 1083 (1983)Google Scholar
  138. 130.
    D.J. Ehrlich, R.M. Osgood, Jr., D.J. Siversmith, T.F. Deutsch: IEEE EDL-1, 101 (1980)Google Scholar
  139. 131.
    R.J. von Gutfeld, J.Cl. Puippe: Oberfläche-Surface22 (9) (1981)Google Scholar
  140. 132.
    J.Y. Tsao, D.J. Ehrlich, D.J. Silversmith, R.W. Mountain: IEEE EDL-3, 164 (1982)Google Scholar
  141. 133.
    D.J. Ehrlich, R.M. Osgood, Jr., T.F. Deutsch: Appl. Phys. Lett.38, 399 (1981)Google Scholar
  142. 134.
    T.F. Deutsch, D.J. Ehrlich, R.M. Osgood, Jr., Z.L. Liau: Appl. Phys. Lett.36, 847 (1980)Google Scholar
  143. 135.
    D.J. Ehrlich, R.M. Osgood, Jr., T.F. Deutsch: Appl. Phys. Lett.36, 916 (1980)Google Scholar
  144. 136.
    T.F. Deutsch, D.J. Ehrlich, D.D. Rathman, D.J. Silversmith, R.M. Osgood, Jr.: Appl. Phys. Lett.39, 825 (1981)Google Scholar
  145. 137.
    D. Pribat, D. Dieumegard, B. Dessertenne, J. Chaplart: In [Ref. 30, p. 367]Google Scholar
  146. 138.
    T.F. Deutsch, J.C.C. Fan, G.W. Turner, R.L. Chapman, D.J. Ehrlich, R.M. Osgood, Jr.: Appl. Phys. Lett.38, 144 (1981)Google Scholar
  147. 139.
    T.F. Deutsch, J.C.C. Fan, D.J. Ehrlich, G.W. Turner, R.L. Chapman, R.P. Gole: Appl. Phys. Lett.40, 722 (1982)Google Scholar
  148. 140.
    D.J. Ehrlich, R.M. Osgood, Jr., T.F. Deutsch: Technical Digest of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Cleo' 81 (Optical Society of America, Washington DC 1981) Paper THH 5Google Scholar
  149. 141.
    D.J. Silversmith, D.J. Ehrlich, J.Y. Tsao, R.W. Mountain, J.H.C. Sedlacek: In [Ref. 30, p. 55]Google Scholar
  150. 142.
    M. Lax: Appl. Phys. Lett.33, 786 (1978)Google Scholar
  151. 143.
    S.A. Kokorowski, G.L. Olson, L.D. Hess: InLaser and Electron-Beam Solid Interaction and Materials Processing, ed. by J.F. Gibbons, L.D. Hess, and T.W. Sigmon (North-Holland, New York 1981) Vol. 1, p. 139Google Scholar
  152. 144.
    L.D. Hess, R.A. Forber, S.A. Kokoroswki, G.L. Olson: SPIE198, 31 (1979)Google Scholar
  153. 145.
    Y.I. Nissim, A. Lietoila, R.B. Gold, J.F. Gibbons: J. Appl. Phys.51, 274 (1980)Google Scholar
  154. 146.
    J.E. Moody, R.M. Hendel: J. Appl. Phys.53, 4364 (1982)Google Scholar
  155. 147.
    H.E. Cline, T.R. Anthony: J. Appl. Phys.48, 3895 (1977)Google Scholar
  156. 148.
    H. Coufal: Appl. Phys. Lett.44, 59 (1984)Google Scholar
  157. 149.
    P. Baeri, S.U. Campisano, E. Rimini, Jing Ping Zhang Appl. Phys. Lett.45, 398 (1984)Google Scholar
  158. 150.
    R.P. Salathé, H.H. Gilgen, Y. Rytz-Froidevaux: IEEE QE-17, 1989 (1981)Google Scholar
  159. 151.
    H.W. Lo, A. Compaan: J. Appl. Phys.51, 1565 (1980)Google Scholar
  160. 152.
    H.W. Lo, A. Compaan: Phys. Rev. Lett.44, 1604 (1980)Google Scholar
  161. 153.
    R.P. Salathé, H.P. Weber, G. Badertscher: Phys. Lett.80A, 65 (1980)Google Scholar
  162. 154.
    A. Mooradian, H.Y. Fan: Phys. Rev.148, 873 (1966)Google Scholar
  163. 155.
    R.P. Salathé, H.H. Gilgen: In [Ref. 25, p. 109]Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. Rytz-Froidevaux
    • 1
  • R. P. Salathé
    • 2
  • H. H. Gilgen
    • 3
  1. 1.Hughes Research LaboratoriesMalibuUSA
  2. 2.Generaldirektion PTTTechnical CenterBernSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department of Electrical EngineeringColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations