Earth, Moon, and Planets

, Volume 69, Issue 2, pp 173–199 | Cite as

Signatures of solar wind interaction with the nightside ionosphere of Venus

  • Harry A. TaylorJr.
  • Leonard Kramer
  • Paul A. Cloutier
  • Shannon S. Walker
Article

Abstract

Plasma and field relationships observed across the nightside of Venus evidence a chaotic variety of interactions between the ionosphere and the combined effect of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field draped about the planet. Close examination of these data reveal within the chaos a number of repeatable signatures key to understanding fundamental field-plasma interactions. Observed from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter, (PVO), nightside conditions range from extensive, “full-up” ionospheres with little evidence of dynamic or energetic perturbations, to an almost full depletion, sometimes described as “disappearing ionospheres”. Between these extremes, the ionospheric structure is often irregular, sometimes exhibiting well-defined density troughs, at other times complex intervals of either abundant or minimal plasma concentration. Consistently, large B-fields (typically exceeding 5–10 nanoteslas) coincide with plasma decreases, whereas stable, abundant plasma distributions are associated with very low-level field. We examine hundreds of nightside orbits, identifying close correlations between regions of elevated magnetic fields featuring polarity reversals, and (a) exclusive low-frequency or distinctive broadband noise, or both, in the electric field data, (b) turbulent, superthermal behavior of the the ions and electrons. We review extensive studies of nightside fields to show that the correlations observed are consistent with theoretical arguments that the presence of strong magnetic fields within “normal” ionospheric heights indicates the intrusion of magnetosheath fields and plasma within such regions. We find abundant evidence that the “ionosphere” is frequently disrupted by such events, exhibiting a chaotic, “auroral-like” complexity appearing over a wide range of altitude and local time. We show that field-plasma disturbances, widely suggested to be similar to conditions in the Earth's auroral regions, are tightly linked to the electric field noise otherwise attributed to lightning. Owing to the coincidence inherent in this relationship, we suggest that natural, predictable plasma instabilities associated with the plasma gradients and current sheets evident within these events produce the E-field noise. The data relationships argue for a more detailed investigation of solar wind induced E-field noise mechanisms as the appropriate scientific procedure for invoking sources for the noise previously attributed to lightning. Consistent with these views, we note that independent analyses have offered alternative explanations of the noise as arising from ionospheric disturbances, that repeated searches for optical evidence of lightning have found no such evidence, and that no accepted theoretical work has yet surfaced to support the inference of lightning at Venus.

Keywords

Solar Wind Current Sheet Interplanetary Magnetic Field Ionospheric Disturbance Solar Wind Interaction 

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harry A. TaylorJr.
    • 1
  • Leonard Kramer
    • 2
  • Paul A. Cloutier
    • 2
  • Shannon S. Walker
    • 3
  1. 1.Taylor EnterprisesNova ScotiaCanada
  2. 2.Rice UniversityHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Rockwell Space Operations Co.HoustonUSA

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