The wind-sensitive cercal receptor/giant interneurone system of the locust,Locusta migratoria
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The terminal ganglion ofLocusta migratoria contains a number of non-giant, wind-sensitive, ascending and local interneurones. Six ascending (Figs. 1, 2) and 6 local (Figs. 6, 7) interneurones have been identified morphologically on the basis of intracellular stains with Lucifer Yellow.
The physiological responses of the various cell types were recorded as the cerci were exposed to sound, wind, or electrical stimulation (Figs. 3, 8). Some cells summate the input from both cerci (Fig. 3), while others are excited by input from one side and inhibited by input from the other (Fig. 8). Conduction velocities for several non-giant ascending interneurones range from 1.5 m/s (cell 1) −2.1 m/s (cell 25).
The morphologies and physiological responses of giant (GIN 1) and non-giant ascending interneurones (cells la, b) with somata in cluster 1 of neuromere 9 were compared using simultaneous intracellular recordings (Figs. 2A, 4). These neurones have very similar dendritic arborizations (Fig. 4A, B), and respond almost identically to cercal stimulation (Fig. 4Ci), but there do not appear to be any connections with GIN 1 (Fig. 4Cii, iii).
The morphology (Fig. 5A, C), and response to cercal stimulation by wind (Fig. 5B) of a nongiant interneurone (cell 7) with its soma in cluster 1 of segment 8 (Fig. 5), are very similar to those of cluster 1 cells such as GIN 1 in segment 9.
Of the 6 local interneurones (Figs. 6, 7) all except one (cell 9) have bilateral arborizations which may extend over several neuromeres within the ganglion (cells 10, 22). Several of the interneurones (cells 5, 9, 24) do not produce action potentials in response to cercal stimulation (Figs. 8, 10) or injection of depolarizing current (Fig. 11).
Simultaneous recordings from pairs of interneurones demonstrate that giants and locals (GIN 2/cell 5; GIN 1/cell 9), as well as different local interneurones (cell 24/cell 5), receive input from the same wind-sensitive filiform afferent (Fig. 9).
Local interneurones 5 and 22 are in different neuromeres of the terminal ganglion but have a similar gross morphology (Figs. 6, 7, 10). Cell 5, however, has arborizations projecting into both posterior cercal glomeruli (Fig. 7 A, inset), whereas only the ipsilateral branches of cell 22 extend posteriorly to the cercal glomerulus (Fig. 10C). Physiologically, cell 5 is depolarized by wind directed at both cerci (Fig. 10 A), cell 22 mainly by wind directed at the ipsilateral cercus (Fig. 10C). Cell 5 does not produce action potentials in response to wind whereas cell 22 does.
Cell 5 occurs as a bilateral pair in the terminal ganglion (Figs. 7B, inset; 11). Simultaneous recordings of the bilateral homologues show that they share the input of at least one wind-sensitive filiform afferent (Fig. 11D), and that there are no connections between them (Fig. 11E). Simultaneous penetrations of local interneurone 5 and giant interneurones demonstrate a short-latency excitatory connection from GIN 3 to cell 5 (Fig. 12 A), and a long-latency excitatory connection from GIN 2 to cell 5.
The roles of giant and non-giant interneurones in transmitting information to thoracic motor centres are discussed.
KeywordsPhysiological Response Conduction Velocity Simultaneous Recording Intracellular Recording Dendritic Arborization
central nervous system
- C1a, b, c
cluster 1 cell a, b, c
dorsal commissure III
excitatory postsynaptic potential
inhibitory postsynaptic potential
lateral dorsal tract
ventral intermediate tract
ventral nerve cord
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