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Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 2, Issue 2, pp 113–122 | Cite as

Electrochemical removal of copper ions from very dilute solutions

  • Douglas N. Bennion
  • John Newman
Papers

Abstract

A device for concentrating electropositive cations using porous, fixed, flow-through, carbon electrodes is described. A feed of 667μg of copper per ml of solution was reduced to less than 1μg of copper per ml of solution. The flow rate was 0.20 cm3/cm2/min through a bed 6 cm thick. Capital cost for the cell is the controlling factor. A preliminary economic analysis indicates that the value of copper recovered will more than pay for the installation and operation of the cell, even for fairly small units.

Keywords

Copper Physical Chemistry Economic Analysis Capital Cost Small Unit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Symbols

a

area per unit volume, cm−1

co

copper concentration of feed, mol/cm3

cb

averaged, bulk copper concentration within porous cathode, mol/cm3

cbL

copper concentration in cathode effluent, mol/cm3

D

diffusion coefficient of copper ions, cm2/s

F

Faradayś constant, 96,487 coul/equiv

i2

superficial or overall electrical current density in catholyte solution, A/cm2

iT

total, overall current density to cathode, A/cm2

I

total current, mA

km

mass transfer coefficient, cm/s

L

thickness of the cathode, cm

n

number of electrons transferred in electrode reaction, 2

Sc

Schmidt numberμ/ρD, dimensionless

t

time to plug cathode with copper, s

v

superficial or approach velocity of catholyte solution, cm/s

VDP

potential of saturated calomel reference electrode in catholyte effluent relative to the cathode, V

VA

potential of anode relative to cathode, V

y

distance from entrance of cathode toward cathode backing plate, cm

α

akm/v, cm−1

β

nFv2co/akmK, V

ɛ

void fraction, dimensionless

k

effective or superficial electrical conductivity of catholyte, mho/cm

k°

electrical conductivity of feed solution, mho/cm

μ

viscosity of feed solution, g/cm-s

ρ

density of feed solution, g/cm3

Φ2

potential in the solution, V

Ψ

particle shape factor, 0.86 for flakes, dimensionless

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References

  1. [1]
    N. A. Lange, editor, ‘Handbook of Chemistry’, eighth edition, p. 788, Handbook Publishers, Inc., Sandusky, Ohio (1952).Google Scholar
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    J. E. Browning (News Editor),Chem. Engr.,78 April 19 (1971) 62.Google Scholar
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    W. H. Smyrl and J. Newman, submitted toJ. Electrochem. Soc. (UCRL-20380, Feb. 1971).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    J. Newman, ‘The Graetz Problem’, UCRL-18646. Berkeley: Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California (1969).Google Scholar
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    R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart and E. N. Lightfoot, ‘Transport Phenomena’, pp. 411 and 679, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York (1960).Google Scholar
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    R. E. de la Rue and C. W. Tobias,J. Electrochem. Soc.,106 (1959) 827.Google Scholar
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    N. A. Lange,loc. cit., p. 1082.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall Ltd. 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Douglas N. Bennion
    • 1
  • John Newman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Energy and Kinetics, School of Engineering and Applied ScienceUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Inorganic Materials Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

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