Journal of Comparative Physiology A

, Volume 154, Issue 3, pp 415–422 | Cite as

Spherical aberration of the fish lens: interspecies variation and age

  • R. O. Kreuzer
  • J. G. Sivak
Article

Summary

Spherical aberration of the eyes of a spectrum of freshwater fishes was determined by photographing the refractive effects of excised crystalline lenses on multiple parallel split laser beams. In general, spherical aberration is minimized by the developmentally related variation in lens refractive index. However, spherical aberration is marked and non-monotonic in a non-visual species such as the bullhead. Furthermore, the size and variability of the aberration appears to be related to visual need as indicated by diet and feeding habits. For example, the lenses of predatory sight feeders such as the pike (Esox lucius) or rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) are optically superior to that of an omnivorous feeder as the carp (Cyprinus carpio).

The effect of age was tested by examining rock bass lenses from fish two to seven years of age. Lens quality, as indicated by the amount of change in posterior focal length for beams of varying eccentricity from the optic axis, is optimum in lenses from five year old fish. The significance of this variation in lens quality is uncertain and requires further study with greater attention to specimens of advanced age.

Keywords

Refractive Index Laser Beam Optic Axis Focal Length Related Variation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams CC, Hankinson TH (1928) The ecology and economics of Oneida Lake fish. Roosevelt Wild Life Bull 1:239–548Google Scholar
  2. Ali MA (1975) Retinomotor responses. In: Ali MA (ed) Vision in fishes. Plenum, New York, pp 313–356Google Scholar
  3. Emig JW (1966) Bluegill sunfish. In: Calhoun A (ed) Inland fisheries management. State of California Resources Agency, Sacramento, pp 375–391Google Scholar
  4. Hile R (1941) Age and growth of rock bass,Ambloplites rupestris, in Nebish Lake Wisconsin. Trans Wisconsion Acad Sci 33:189–337Google Scholar
  5. Hubbs CL, Lagler KL (1947) Fishes of the Great Lakes Region. University of Michigan Press, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  6. Keast A, Welsh L (1968) Daily feeding periodicities, food uptake rates, and dietary changes with hour of day in some lake fishes. J Fish Res Board Can 25:1133–1144Google Scholar
  7. Le Grand Y (1967) Form and space vision. Indiana University Press, Boomington IndianaGoogle Scholar
  8. Marshall NB (1966) The life of fishes. World Publ Co, ClevelandGoogle Scholar
  9. Maxwell JC (1854) Some solutions of problems. Cam Dubl Math J 8:188–195Google Scholar
  10. McAfee WR (1966) Rainbow trout. In: Calhoun A (ed) Inland fisheries management. State of California Resources Agency, Sacramento, pp 192–215Google Scholar
  11. Pumphrey RJ (1961) Concerning vision. In: Ramsay JA, Wigglesworth VB (eds) The cell and the organism. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 193–208Google Scholar
  12. Scott WD (1967) Freshwater fishes of Eastern Canada. University of Toronto Press, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  13. Sivak JG (1973) Interrelation of feeding behavior and accommodative lens movements in some species of North American freshwater fishes. J Fish Res Board Can 13:1141–1146Google Scholar
  14. Sivak JG (1980) Accommodation in vertebrates. In: Zadunaisky JA, Davson H (eds) Current topics in eye research, vol 3. Academic Press, New York, pp 281–330Google Scholar
  15. Sivak JG, Howland HC (1973) Accommodation in the northern rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris rupestris) in response to natural stimuli. Vision Res 13:2059–2064Google Scholar
  16. Sivak JG, Dovrat A (1983) Aging and the optical quality of the rat crystalline lens. Invest Ophthalmol Visual Sci (in press)Google Scholar
  17. Sivak JG, Kreuzer RO (1983) Spherical aberration of the crystalline lens. Vision Res 23:59–70Google Scholar
  18. Snow H, Ensign A, Klingviel J (1960) The bluegill-its life history, ecology and management. Wisconsin Conser Dep, Publication 230, 16 pGoogle Scholar
  19. Spector A (1982) Aging of the lens and cataract formation. In: Sekuler R, Kline D, Dismukes K (eds) Aging and human visual function. AR Liss Inc, New York, pp 27–43Google Scholar
  20. Sroczyński S (1975) Die sphärische Aberration der Augenlinse der Regenbogenforelle (Salmo gairdneri Rich.). Zool Jb Physiol 79:204–212Google Scholar
  21. Scroczyński S (1977) Spherical aberration of crystalline lens in the roach,Rutilus rutilus L. J Comp Physiol 121:135–144Google Scholar
  22. Sroczyński S (1979) Das optische System des Auges des Fluß barsches (Perca fluviatilis L). Zool Jb Physiol 83:224–252Google Scholar
  23. Tamura T (1957) A study of visual perception in fish, especially on resolving power and accommodation. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 22:536–557Google Scholar
  24. Walls GL (1942) The vertebrate eye and its adaptive radiation. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, MichiganGoogle Scholar
  25. Webster DA (1941) The life history of some Connecticut fishes in a fishery survey of important Connecticut lakes. Conn Geol Nature Hist Surv Bull, No 63Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. O. Kreuzer
    • 1
  • J. G. Sivak
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Optometry and Department of BiologyUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

Personalised recommendations