Advertisement

Physiological correlates of middle-distance running performance

A comparative study between men and women
  • S. Padilla
  • M. Bourdin
  • J. C. Barthélémy
  • J. R. Lacour
Article

Summary

To compare the relative contributions of their functional capacities to performance in relation to sex, two groups of middle-distance runners (24 men and 14 women) were selected on the basis of performances over 1500-m and 3000-m running races. To be selected for the study, the average running velocity (\(\bar v\)) in relation to performances had to be superior to a percentage (90% for men and 88% for women) of the best French\(\bar v\) achieved during the season by an athlete of the same sex. Maximal O2 consumption (\(\dot V{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} \)max) and energy cost of running (CR) were measured in the 2 months preceding the track season. This allowed us to calculate the maximal\(\bar v\) that could be sustained under aerobic conditions, νa,max. A\(\bar v\): νa, max ratio derived from 1500-m to 3000-m races was used to calculate the maximal duration of a competitive race for which\(\bar v\) = νa,max (tνa,max) In both groups νa,max was correlated to\(\bar v\). The relationships calculated for each distance were similar in both sexes. The CR [0.179 (SD 0.010) ml · kg−1 · m−1 in the women versus 0.177 (SD 0.010) in the men] andtνa,max [7.0 (SD 2.0) min versus 8.4 (SD 2.1)] also showed no difference. The relationships between\(\dot V{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} \)max and body mass (mb) calculated in the men and the women were different. At the samemb the women had a 10% lower CR than the men; their lowermb thus resulted in an identical CR. In both groups CR and\(\dot V{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} \)max were strongly correlated (r=0.74 and 0.75 respectively,P<0.01), suggesting that a high level of\(\dot V{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} \)max could hardly be associated with a low CR. These relationships were different in the two groups (P<0.05). At the same\(\dot V{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} \)max the men had a higher νa,inax than the women. Thus, the disparity in track performances between the two sexes could be attributed to\(\dot V{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} \)max and to the\(\dot V{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} \)max/CR relationships.

Key words

Middle-distance running velocity Sex Body dimensions Energy cost of running Maximal oxygen consumption 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Åstrand PO (1952) Experimental studies of physical working capacity in relation to sex and age. Munsksgaard, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  2. Åstrand PO, Rodahl K (1986) Textbook of work physiology. Physical bases of exercise, 3rd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 414–415Google Scholar
  3. Bergh U, Sjödin B, Forsberg A, Svedenhag J (1991) The relationship between body mass and oxygen uptake during running in humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc 23:205–211Google Scholar
  4. Bosco C, Montanari G, Ribacchi R, Faina M, Colle R, Dal Monte A, Latteri F, Pastoris F, Benzi G, Cortili G, Saibene F (1986) The relationship between the re-use of elastic energy and the energetic cost of running. In: Benzi G, Packer L, Siliprandi N (eds) Biochemical aspects of physical exercise. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 469–478Google Scholar
  5. Bransford DR, Howley ET (1977) Oxygen cost of running in trained and untrained men and women. Med Sci Sports 9:41–44Google Scholar
  6. Buckalew DP, Barlow DA, Fischer DW, Richards JG (1985) Biomechanical profile of elite women marathoners. Int J Sport Biomech 1:330–347Google Scholar
  7. Carter JEL, Ross WD, Aubry SP, Hebbelinck M, Borms J (1982) Anthropometry of Montreal athletes. In: Carter JEL (ed) Medicine and sport: physical structure of olympic athletes, vol 16. Karger, Basel, pp 25–52Google Scholar
  8. Cavagna GA, Saibene FP, Margaria R (1964) Mechanical work in running. J Appl Physiol 19:249–256Google Scholar
  9. Daniels J, Daniels N (1992) Running economy of elite male and elite female runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 24:483–489Google Scholar
  10. Daniels J, Krahenbuhl G, Foster C, Gilbert J, Daniels S (1977) Aerobic responses of female distance runners to submaximal and maximal exercise. In: Milvy P (ed) The marathon: physiological, medical and psychological studies. Ann N Y Acad Sci 301:726–733Google Scholar
  11. Daniels J, Scardina N, Hayes J, Foley P (1986) Elite and subelite female middle- and long-distance runners. In: Landers DM (ed) Sport and elite performers. Human Kinetics, Champaign, Ill., pp 57–72Google Scholar
  12. Davies CTM (1980) Metabolic cost of physical performance in children with some observations on external loading. Eur J Appl Physiol 45:95–102Google Scholar
  13. Geyssant A, Dormois D, Barthelemy JC, Lacour JR (1985) Lactate determination with the lactate analyser L.A.640: a critical study. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 45:145–149Google Scholar
  14. Ito A, Komi PV, Sjödin B, Bosco C, Karlsson J (1983) Mechanical efficiency of positive work in running at different speeds. Med Sci Sports Exerc 15:299–308Google Scholar
  15. Komi PV (1986) The stretch-shortening cycle and human power output. In: Jones NL, McCartney N, McComas AJ (eds) Muscle power. Human Kinetics, Champaign, Ill., pp 27–39Google Scholar
  16. Komi PV, Bosco C (1978) Utilization of stored elastic energy in leg extensor muscles by men and women. Med Sci Sports 10:261–265Google Scholar
  17. Lacour JR, Padilla-Magunacelaya S, Barthélémy JC, Dormois D (1990) The energetics of middle distance running. Eur J Appl Physiol 60:38–43Google Scholar
  18. Mayhew JL (1977) Oxygen cost and energy expenditure of running in trained runners. Br J Sports Med 11:116–121Google Scholar
  19. Medbø JL, Mohn AC, Tabata I, Bahr R, Vaage O, Sejersted OM (1988) Anaerobic capacity determined by maximal accumulated O2 deficit. J Appl Physiol 64:50–60Google Scholar
  20. Morgan D, Baldini F, Martin P, Kohrt W (1989) Ten kilometer performance and predicted velocity at\(\dot V{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} \) max among welltrained male runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 21:78–83Google Scholar
  21. Péronnet F, Thibault G (1989) Mathematical analysis of running performance and world running records. J Appl Physiol 67:453–465Google Scholar
  22. Saltin B, Åstrand PO (1967) Maximal oxygen uptake in athletes. J Appl Physiol 23:353–358Google Scholar
  23. Simonsen EB, Thomsen L, Klausen K (1985) Activity of monoand biarticular leg muscles during sprint running. Eur J Appl Physiol 54:524–532Google Scholar
  24. Sparling PB, Cureton KJ (1983) Biological determinants of the sex difference in 12 min run performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 15:218–223Google Scholar
  25. Thorstensson A (1986) Effects of moderate external loading on the aerobic demand of submaximal running in men and 10 year old boys. Eur J Appl Physiol 55:569–574Google Scholar
  26. Williams KR, Cavanagh PR, Ziff JL (1987) Biomechanical studies of elite female distance runners. Int J Sports Med [Suppl] 8:107–118Google Scholar
  27. Wilmore JH (1983) Body composition in sports and exercise: directions for future research. Med Sci Sports Exerc 15:21–31Google Scholar
  28. Winter EM, Brookes FBC (1991) Electromechanical response times and muscle elasticity in men and women. Eur J Appl Physiol 63:124–128Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Sprinper-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Padilla
    • 1
  • M. Bourdin
    • 2
  • J. C. Barthélémy
    • 3
  • J. R. Lacour
    • 2
  1. 1.Neudigonoza Amadeo Garcia Salazar S/UCentro Medicina DeportivaVictoria-GasteizSpain
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Physiologie - GIP ExerciceFaculté de Medecine Lyon-SudOullins CédexFrance
  3. 3.Laboratoire de Physiologie - GIP ExerciceUniversité de Saint-Etienne, Centre HospitalierSaint-Jean-BonnefondsFrance

Personalised recommendations