Advertisement

Perception of effort during high-intensity exercise at low, moderate and high wet bulb globe temperatures

  • Stephen C. Glass
  • Ronald G. Knowlton
  • M. Daniel Becque
Article

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of low, moderate and high wet bulb globe temperatures (Twbg) on cardiovascular variables and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during moderately prolonged, high-intensity exercise. Six subjects [four men and two women; mean (SD) age, 22.0 (1.2) years; maximum oxygen consumption ({ie519-1}), 51.0 (8.4) ml · kg−1 · min−1] completed 30 min of exercise (80% {ie519-2}) on a cycle ergometer at low [14.7 (2.1)°C], moderate [21.0 (1.5)° C], and high [27.4 (2.3)° C]Twbg. Two additional subjects completed 20 min of exercise in the high temperature condition, but completed 30 min in the moderate and lowTwbg. Heart rate (fc), blood pressure, blood lactate (La), mean skin temperature (\(\bar T\)sk),\(\dot V\), and RPE were measured at 10, 20 and 30 min. Results showed thatfc, rate pressure product, RPE, pulmonary ventilation and ventilatory equivalent for oxygen increased (P < 0.05) across time for all conditions, while\(\bar T\) decreased across time.\(\bar T\)sk andfc were significantly greater across time in the high condition [35.9 (0.65)° C; 176 (12.6) beats · min−1] compared to the moderate [34.6 (1.5)° C; 170 (17.2) beats · min−1] and the low condition [31.7 (1.5)° C; 164 (17.1) beats-min−1]. However, there were no differences throughout exercise in RPE [high,.16.2 (2.0); moderate, 16.4 (2.2); low, 16.3 (1.9)] and\(\dot V\) across the conditions. These data suggest that RPE is closely related to metabolic intensity but is not a valid indicator of cardiovascular strain during exercise in highTwbg conditions.

Key words

Wet bulb globe temperature Exercise prescription Cycle ergometer exercise Ratings of perceived exertion 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American College of Sports Medicine (AGSM) (1984) Position stand on the prevention of thermal injuries during distance running. Med Sci Sports Exerc 16: iiGoogle Scholar
  2. American College of Sports Medicine (1991) Guidelines for exercise testing and prescription, 4th edn. Lea and FebigerGoogle Scholar
  3. Bayles CM, Metz KF, Robertson R, Goss FL, Cosgrove J, McBurney D (1990) Perceptual regulation of prescribed exercise. J Cardiopulmonary Rehabil 10:25–31Google Scholar
  4. Borg G (1970) Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress. Scand J Rehabil Med 2:92–98Google Scholar
  5. Brouha L, Smith PE, De Lanne R, Maxfield ME (1960) Physiological reactions of men and women during muscular activity and recovery in various environments. J Appl Physiol 16:133–140Google Scholar
  6. Brouha L, Maxfield ME, Smith PE, Stopps GJ (1963) Discrepancy between heart rate and oxygen consumption during work in the warmth. J Appl Physiol 18:1095–1098Google Scholar
  7. Burton AC (1948) Temperature of the skin: measurement and use as index of peripheral blood flow. In: Van Potter R (ed) Methods in medical research, vol 1. Year Book, Chicago, p 146Google Scholar
  8. Chow RJ, Wilmore JH (1984) The regulation of exercise intensity by ratings of perceived exertion. J Cardiac Rehabil 4:382–387Google Scholar
  9. Consolazio CF, Matoush LO, Nelson RA, Torres JB, Issaac GJ (1963) Environmental temperature and energy expenditures. J Appl Physiol 18:65–68Google Scholar
  10. Dimri GP, Malhorta MS, Gupta JS, Kumar TS, Arora BS (1980) Alterations in aerobic-anaerobic proportions of metabolism during work in heat. Eur J Appl Physiol 45:43–50Google Scholar
  11. Dishman RK, Patton RW, Smith I, Weinberg R, Jackson A (1987) Using perceived exertion to prescribe and monitor exercise training heart rate. Int J Sports Med 8:208–213Google Scholar
  12. Ekblom B, Goldbarg AN (1971) The influence of physical training and other factors on the subjective rating of perceived exertion. Acta Physiol Scand 83:399–406Google Scholar
  13. Eston RG, Davies BL, Williams JG (1987) Use of perceived effort ratings to control exercise intensity in young healthy adults. Eur J Appl Physiol 56:222–224Google Scholar
  14. Glass SC, Knowlton RG, Becque MD (1992) Accuracy of RPE from graded exercise to establish exercise training intensity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 24:1303–1307Google Scholar
  15. Hartzell AA, Freund BJ, Jilka SM, Joyner MJ, Anderson RL, Ewy GA, Wilmore JH (1986) The effect of beta-adrenergic blockade on ratings of perceived exertion during submaximal exercise before and following endurance training. J Cardiopulmonary Rehabil 6:444–456Google Scholar
  16. Huey KA, Hagen RD, Bennett BL, Minson C, Cain D (1993) Effect of cooling vests on thermal sensation and perceived exertion during heat exposure. Med Sci Sports Exerc 25:S138Google Scholar
  17. International Standards Oganization (ISO) (1982) Hot environments — estimation of heat stress on working man based on the WBGT index (wet bulb globe temperature). ISO 7243Google Scholar
  18. Katch FI, Michael ED, Horvath SM (1967) Estimation of body volume by underwater weighing; description of a simple method. J Appl Physiol 23:811–813Google Scholar
  19. Mihevic PM (1981) Sensory cues for perceived exertion: a review. Med Sci Sports Exerc 13:150–163Google Scholar
  20. Morgan WP, Borg G (1976) Perception of effort in the prescription of physical activity. In: Craig T (ed) The humanistic and mental health aspects of sports, exercise and recreation. American Medical Association, Chicago, pp 256–259Google Scholar
  21. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) (1986) Criteria for a recommended standard ... occupational exposure to hot environments. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services, Centers for Disease ControlGoogle Scholar
  22. Nobel BJ, Metz KF, Pandolf KB, Cafarelli E (1973) Perceptual responses to exercise: a multiple regression study. Med Sci Sports 5:104–109Google Scholar
  23. Pandolf K, Cafarelli E, Noble B, Metz K (1972) Perceptual responses during prolonged work. Percept Mot Skills 35:975–985Google Scholar
  24. Pandolf KB, Cafarelli E, Noble BJ, Metz KF (1975) Hyperthermia: effect on exercise prescription. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 56:524–526Google Scholar
  25. Pandolf KB, Sawka MN, Gonzalez RR (eds) (1988) Human performance physiology and environmental medicine at terrestrial extremes. Benchmark Press, Indianapolis, pp 112–126Google Scholar
  26. Pedhazur EJ (1982) Multiple regression in behavioral research, 2nd edn Holt, Rinehart, Winston, Fort Worth, pp 315–316Google Scholar
  27. Robertson RJ (1982) Central signals of perceived exertion during dynamic exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 14:390–396Google Scholar
  28. Robertson RJ, Goss FL, Auble TE, Cassinelli DA, Spina RJ, Glickman EL, Galbreath RW, Silberman RM, Metz KF (1990) Cross-modal exercise prescription at absolute and relative oxygen uptake using perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc 22:653–659Google Scholar
  29. Rowell LB (1974) Human cardiovascular adjustments to exercise and thermal stress. Physiol Rev 54:75–159Google Scholar
  30. Scholander PF (1947) Analyzer for accurate estimation of respiratory gases in one-half cubic centimeter samples. J Biol Chem 167:235–250Google Scholar
  31. Skinner JS, Hutsler R, Bergsteinova V, Buskirk ER (1973) Perception of effort during different types of exercise and under different environmental conditions. Med Sci Sports 5:110–115Google Scholar
  32. Smutok MA, Skrinar GS, Pandolf KB (1980) Exercise regulation: subjective regulation by perceived exertion. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 61: 569–574Google Scholar
  33. Wilmore JH, Vodak PA, Girandola RN, Billing JE (1980) Further simplification of a method for detmerination of residual lung volume. Med Sci Sports Exerc 12:216–218Google Scholar
  34. Yaglou CP, Minard D (1957) Control of heat casualties at military training centers. AMA Arch Ind Health 16:302–305Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen C. Glass
    • 1
  • Ronald G. Knowlton
    • 1
  • M. Daniel Becque
    • 1
  1. 1.Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical EducationSouthern Illinois UniversityCarbondaleUSA

Personalised recommendations