Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 251–257 | Cite as

The Hawaii geothermal project: Phytotoxicity of geothermal separator brine, An exploratory study

  • S. M. Siegel
  • Paulette Kamaka
  • B. Z. Siegel
  • Thomas Crocker
  • Werner Kottenmeier
Article

Abstract

The Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) separator brine is toxic to a number of plant species, including papaya and ‘ohi’ a (Metrosideros). A great deal but not all of the brine toxicity on the latter is related to salinityper se. In contrast, papaya growth was stimulated by NaCI brines 3500 ppm and even higher, but inhibited by HGP brine of comparable salt content. Combinations of borate, fluoride, trace metals and salts may generate phytotoxicity. Disposal of HGP brine by direct release into the soil or groundwater is contraindicated.

Keywords

Toxicity Plant Species Fluoride Borate Trace Metal 

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Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. M. Siegel
    • 1
  • Paulette Kamaka
    • 1
  • B. Z. Siegel
    • 2
  • Thomas Crocker
    • 1
  • Werner Kottenmeier
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA
  2. 2.Pack Biomedical Research CenterUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA

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