International Review of Education

, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp 313–335 | Cite as

Foreign aid for education

  • Jandhyala B. G. Tilak
Articles

Abstract

Education has only recently received development finances from the international donor community. This change has been more or less concurrent with the ‘human investment revolution in economic thought’ initiated by Theodore Schultz. This paper surveys the shifting trends in educational aid, its problems and prospects. It discusses three divergent views held in developing countries: (a) that aid is beneficial to their educational development, (b) that it helps only the donor country, and (c) that despite negative experiences it has the potential of helping the recipient. The article begins by describing the complex international donor community, attempts in section 2 to answer the question why aid should be given to education in preference to other sectors, in section 3 considers trends in the growth of educational aid, and in section 4 the overall impact of aid on educational development, and concludes with some general observations on improving the effects of foreign aid on education.

Keywords

Development Finance Educational Development Donor Country Economic Thought Divergent View 

Zusammenfassung

Erst seit kurzem erhält das Bildungswesen Entwicklungsgelder von der internationalen Gebergemeinschaft. Diese Veränderung vollzieht sich mehr oder weniger gleichzeitig mit der revolutionären Theorie von Theodore Schultz von der Investition menschlichen Kapitals im ökonomischen Sinne. Dieser Bericht vermittelt einen Überblick über die sich ändernden Strömungen in der Erziehungshilfe, ihre Probleme und Aussichten. Drei divergierende, in Entwicklungsländern vertretene, Ansichten werden behandelt, und zwar (a) daß Entwicklungshilfe für die Entwicklung des Erziehungswesens vorteilhaft ist, (b) daß sie nur dem Geberland hilft, und (c) daß sie trotz negativer Erfahrungen eine potentielle Hilfe für das Empfängerland ist. In dem Artikel wird einleitend die komplexe internationale Gebergemeinschaft beschrieben, im zweiten Abschnitt geht der Verfasser der Frage nach, warum Entwicklungshilfe dem Erziehungswesen Vorrang vor der Unterstützung anderer Bereiche geben sollte und der dritte Abschnitt erörtert Tendenzen in dem Zuwachs der Erziehungshilfe. Im vierten Abschnitt wird die Gesamtwirkung der Entwicklungshilfe auf die Entwicklung des Bildungswesens besprochen, und der Artikel schließt mit einigen allgemeinen Betrachtungen über die Auswirkungen ausländischer Hilfe auf das Erziehungswesen.

Résumé

Ce n'est que récemment que l'éducation s'est vu attribuer une augmentation de ses ressources par la communauté donatrice internationale. Ce changement s'est produit plus ou moins au même moment que la ‘révolution de l'investissement humain dans la pensée économique’ inaugurée par Théodore Schultz. Le présent article examine les nouvelles tendances de l'aide à l'éducation, ses problèmes et perspectives. Il analyse trois points de vue divergents professés par les pays en développement, à savoir (a) que l'aide accordée est avantageuse pour le développement de leur système éducatif, (b) qu'elle ne profite qu'au pays donateur, et (c) qu'elle représente un soutien potentiel pour le bénéficiaire malgré les expériences négatives rencontrées. L'article commence par une description de la complexité de la communauté donatrice internationale, s'efforce de répondre, dans la seconde partie, à la question de savoir pourquoi une aide devrait être accordée de préférence à l'éducation plutôt qu'à d'autres secteurs, examine, dans la troisième partie, les tendances du développement de l'aide à l'éducation, étudie, dans la quatrième partie, l'impact général de l'aide sur le développement de l'éducation et termine par quelques remarques générales sur l'amélioration des effets de l'aide étrangère sur l'éducation. Each aid agency, someone once said, ‘marches to two different sets of drums’: one set which is played in the agency's own domestic political environment, and another one which is played by the political leadership of the ‘recipient’ country with which aid agreements are concluded. There is, of course, a good deal more noise in this area than just two sets of drums: other bilateral donors, international organizations, inside and outside the UN system, donor conglomerates such as the European Development Fund (EDF) and increasingly the World Bank, all contribute the sound and rhythm of their own drums, to the relationship between the assisting and the assisted country. (Weiler, 1984, p. 142)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahluwalia, M.S. ‘Income Inequality: Some Dimensions of the Problem’. In Chenery, H.B.et al. Redistribution with Growth. New York: Oxford University Press/World Bank, 1974, pp. 3–37.Google Scholar
  2. Bauer, P.Dissent on Development: Studies and Debates in Development Economics. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1974.Google Scholar
  3. Blaug, M., Dougherty, C.R.S. and Psacharopoulos, G. ‘The Distribution of Schooling and the Distribution of Earnings’.The Manchester School of Economic and Social Studies. 50 (March 1982), pp. 24–39.Google Scholar
  4. Burgess, T. and Pratt, J. ‘Aid without Imperialism’.Higher Education Review. 13 (1980), No. 1, pp. 48–56.Google Scholar
  5. Carnoy, M.et al. ‘The Political Economy of Financing Education in Developing Countries’. InFinancing Educational Development. Ottawa: IDRC, 1982, pp. 39–86.Google Scholar
  6. Chandrakant, L.S. ‘India’. In Parkinson, N.Educational Aid and National Development. London: Macmillan, 1976, pp. 195–287.Google Scholar
  7. Colclough, C., Lewin, K. and Oxenham, J. ‘Donor Agency Support for Primary Education’.International Journal of Educational Development. 5 (1985), No. 4, pp. 295–306.Google Scholar
  8. Coombs, P.H. ‘Ways to Improve United States Foreign Educational Aid’. InEducation and Foreign Aid. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1965, pp. 3–40.Google Scholar
  9. Coombs, P.H.The World Crisis in Education: A View from the Eighties. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.Google Scholar
  10. Dasgupta, A.L.K. and Tilak, J.B.G. ‘Distribution of Education among Income Groups: An Empirical Analysis’.Economic and Political Weekly. 18 (13 August 1983), No. 33, pp. 1442–1447.Google Scholar
  11. Debeauvais, M. ‘The Contribution of Economics of Education to Aid Policies: A Critical Comment’. In Ward, T.C. (ed.)Education and Development. New York: Praeger, 1974, pp. 33–48.Google Scholar
  12. Fagerlind, I. and Saha, L.J.Education and National Development: A Comparative Perspective. Oxford: Pergamon, 1983.Google Scholar
  13. Habte, A. and Heyneman, S.P. ‘Education for National Development: World Bank Activities’.Prospects. 13 (1983), No. 4, pp. 471–479.Google Scholar
  14. Harbison, F.H. ‘The Education-Income Connection’. In Frank, C.R. (Jr.) and Webb, R.C. (eds.)Income Distribution and Growth in the Less Developed Countries. Washington, DC: Brookings, 1977, pp. 127–158.Google Scholar
  15. Hurst, P. ‘Aid and Educational Development: Rhetoric and Reality’.Comparative Education. 17 (1981a), No. 2, pp. 117–125.Google Scholar
  16. Hurst, P. ‘Some Issues in Improving the Quality of Education’.Comparative Education. 17 (1981b), No. 2, pp. 183–193.Google Scholar
  17. Hurst, P. ‘Key Issues in the External Financing of Education’.Prospects. 13 (1983), No. 4, pp. 429–438.Google Scholar
  18. Jencks, C.et al. Inequality. New York: Basic, 1972.Google Scholar
  19. Khoî, L.T. ‘Aid to Education — Co-operation or Domination?’Prospects. 6 (1976), No. 4, pp. 583–594.Google Scholar
  20. Kim, H.-K. ‘Lenders, Borrowers and Educational Development’.Prospects. 13 (1983), No. 4, pp. 439–447.Google Scholar
  21. Krueger, A.O. ‘Aid in Development Process’.The World Bank Research Observer. 1 (1986), No. 1, pp. 57–58.Google Scholar
  22. MacBean, A.I. and Balasubramanyam, V.N.Meeting the Third World Challenge. 2nd Edition. London: Macmillan, 1978.Google Scholar
  23. Marin, A. and Psacharopoulos, G. ‘Schooling and Income Distribution’.Review of Economics and Statistics. 58 (1976), No. 3, pp. 332–338.Google Scholar
  24. Mende, T. ‘Aid in its Context’.Prospects. 4 (1974), No. 2, pp. 198–204.Google Scholar
  25. Mincer, J.Schooling, Experience and Earnings. New York: NBER, 1974.Google Scholar
  26. Myrdal, G. and Seers, D. ‘Where Has All the Aid Gone?’Express Magazine. (August 1, 1982); [originally appeared in theGuardian].Google Scholar
  27. Noor, A. ‘Education Lending for the Poor’.Finance and Development. 6 (1979), No. 2, pp. 16–19.Google Scholar
  28. Noor, A. ‘Education and Basic Needs’.Staff Working Paper No. 450. Washington, DC: World Bank, 1981.Google Scholar
  29. Padmanabhan, C.B. and Tilak, J.B.G. ‘External Financing of Education’. New Delhi: National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration, 1986 (mimeo).Google Scholar
  30. Pearson, L.R.Partners in Development: Report of the Commission on International Development. London: Pall Mall, 1969.Google Scholar
  31. Phillips, H.M.Educational Cooperation between Developed and Developing Countries. New York: Praeger, 1976.Google Scholar
  32. Phillips, H.M. ‘Criteria and Methods of Generating Education Cooperation Projects for External Funding’.Comparative Education. 17 (1981), No. 2, pp. 195–205.Google Scholar
  33. Psacharopoulos, G.Returns to Education. Amsterdam: Elsevier-Jossey Bass, 1973.Google Scholar
  34. Psacharopoulos, G. ‘Inequalities in Education and Employment’. InInequalities in Educational Development. Paris: Unesco-IIEP, 1978, pp. 163–189.Google Scholar
  35. Psacharopoulos, G. ‘The World Bank in the World of Education: Some Policy Changes and Some Remnants’.Comparative Education. 17 (1981), No. 2, pp. 141–146.Google Scholar
  36. Psacharopoulos, G. ‘Education as an Investment’.Finance and Development. 19 (1982), No. 3, pp. 39–42.Google Scholar
  37. Psacharopoulos, G. ‘Educational Research at the World Bank’.The World Bank Research News. 4 (1983), No. 1, pp. 3–17.Google Scholar
  38. Psacharopoulos, G. ‘The Contribution of Education to Economic Growth: International Comparisons’. In Kendrick, J.W. (ed.)International Comparisons of Productivity and Causes of the Slowdown. Cambridge: American Enterprise Institute/Ballinger, 1984, pp. 335–355.Google Scholar
  39. Psacharopoulos, G. ‘Returns to Education: A Further International Update and Implications’.Journal of Human Resources. 20 (1985), No. 4, pp. 583–604.Google Scholar
  40. Psacharopoulos, G. and Woodhall, M.Education for Development: An Analysis of Investment Choices. New York: Oxford University Press/World Bank, 1985.Google Scholar
  41. Reiff, H. ‘Towards a Re-Examination of Aid to the Least Developed Countries’.Prospects. 6 (1976), No. 4, pp. 611–615.Google Scholar
  42. Reiff, H. ‘International Cooperation in Education with the Least Developed Countries’.Prospects. 13 (1983), No. 4, pp. 449–458.Google Scholar
  43. Ribich, T.I.Education and Poverty. Washington, DC: Brookings, 1968.Google Scholar
  44. Schultz, T.W.Investment in Poor People. Seminar on Manpower Policy and Program. Washington, DC: US Department of Labor, 1967.Google Scholar
  45. Schultz, T.W. ‘Distortions by the International Donor Community’. In Schultz, T.W.Investing in People: The Economics of Population Quality. Delhi: Hindustan, 1981, pp. 122–147.Google Scholar
  46. Sewell, J.W. ‘Can the North Prosper without Growth and Progress in the South?’ Reprinted in Todaro, M.P. (ed.)The Struggle for Economic Development. New York: Longman, 1983, pp. 392–402.Google Scholar
  47. Sheffield, J.R. ‘The Rediscovery of Poverty: A Review of Aid Policies in Education’. In Williams, P. (ed.)Prescription for Progress? A Commentary on the Educational Policy of the World Bank. Studies in Education 3. London: University of London Institute of Education, 1976, pp. 45–55.Google Scholar
  48. Spaulding, S.J. ‘Needed Research on the Impact of International Assistance Organizations on the Development of Education’.Comparative Education. 17 (1981), No. 2, pp. 207–213.Google Scholar
  49. Tilak, J.B.G. ‘Investment in Education’.Eastern Economist. (Annual number 1980), pp. 85–113.Google Scholar
  50. Tilak, J.B.G. ‘Education in an Unequal World’. InEducational Planning: A Long-Term Perspective. New Delhi: Concept/National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration, 1986, pp. 27–50.Google Scholar
  51. Watson, K. ‘Educational Neo-Colonialism — the Continuing Colonial Legacy’. In Watson, K. (ed.)Education in the Third World. London: Croom Helm, 1982, pp. 181–200.Google Scholar
  52. Weiler, H.N. ‘Education, Public Confidence and the Legitimacy of the Modern State: Do We Have a Crisis?’Phi Delta Kappan. 64 (1982), No. 1, pp. 9–14.Google Scholar
  53. Weiler, H.N. ‘The Political Economy of International Cooperation in Education Development’. In Garrett, R.M. (ed.)Education and Development. London: Croom Helm, 1984, pp. 123–156.Google Scholar
  54. Winegarden, C.R. ‘Schooling and Income Distribution’.Economica. 46 (1979), No. 181, pp. 83–87.Google Scholar
  55. World Bank.Education Sector Policy Paper. Washington, DC, 1980a.Google Scholar
  56. World Bank.World Development Report. Washington, DC, 1980b.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jandhyala B. G. Tilak

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations