, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 264–268 | Cite as

MRI monitoring of experimental cerebral ischaemia: comparison of two models

  • M. Forsting
  • W. Reith
  • A. Dörfler
  • U. Meyding-Lamadé
  • K. Sartor
Diagnostic Neuroradiology


In experimental stroke research one of the key questions is whether animals models truly reflect human disease. One important reason for modelling stroke is to produce tissue changes that can be used to validate the correlation between the results of advanced radiological imaging and pathology. The aim of this study was to compare two minimally invasive rat models of focal ischaemic stroke as to their ability to simulate clinical stroke reproducibly. In one model a focal infarct was induced using the photochemical Rose Bengal technique. The second model was based on transvascular occlusion of the middle cerebral artery using a cervical approach. In all animals we performed MRI at different times with two different paramagnetic contrast agents. The time course of blood-brain-barrier disruption in the Rose Bengal model differed entirely from that in human brain ischaemia. The experimental stroke showed marked contrast enhancement in the first hour after the onset of ischaemia. On the other hand, the MRI changes in the suture occlusion model were very similar to the changes observed in human brain ischaemia: no early disruption of the blood-brain-barrier and increased T2-signal 4–6 h after the onset of stroke. We hope that the suture occlusion model will be used for research not only by basic and clinical scientists but also by radiologists, who, using modern imaging methods, may greatly influence the diagnosis as well as the management of this devasting disease.

Key words

Experimental brain ischaemia Bengal Rose model Suture occlusion model MRI Blood-brain-barrier disruption 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Wiebers DO, Adams HP, Whisnant JP (1990) Animal models of stroke are they relevant to human disease? Stroke 21:1–3Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Millikan C (1992) Animal stroke models. Stroke 23:795–797Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Crain MR, Yuh WTC, Greene GM, Loes DJ, Ryals TJ, Sato Y, Hart MN (1991) Cerebral ischemia: evaluation with contrast-enhanced MR imaging. AJNR 12:631–639Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fisher M, Sotak CH, Minematsu K, Li L (1992) New magnetic resonance techniques for evaluating cerebrovascular disease. Ann Neurol 32:115–122Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bose B, Osterholm JL, Berry R (1984) A reproducible experimental model of focal cerebral ischemia in the cat. Brain Res 311:385–391Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Longa EZ, Weinstein PR, Carlson S, Cummings R (1989) Reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion without craniectomy in rats. Stroke 20:84–91Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sipponen JT (1984) Visualization of brain infarction with nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroradiology 26:590–594Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goldstein A, Wells RA, Keats AS (1966) Increased tolerance to cerebral anoxia by pentobarbital. Arch Int Pharmacodyn 161: 138–143Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ginsberg MD, Graham DL, Welsh FA, Budd WW (1979) Diffuse cerebral ischemia in the cat. III: Neuropathological sequelae of severe ischemia. Ann Neurol 5:350–358Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pulsinelli WA, Brierly JB (1979) A new model of bilateral hemispheric ischemia in the unanesthetized rat. Stroke 10:267–272Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Smith M, Bendek G, Dahlgren N, Rosen I, Wieloch T, Siesjö BK (1984) Models for studying long-term recovery following forebrain ischemia in the rat. 2. A two-vessel occlusion model. Acta Neurol Scand 69:385–401Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tamura A, Graham DI, McGulloch J, Teasdale GM (1981) Focal cerebral ischemia in the rat: 1. Description of technique and early neuropathological consequences following middle cerebral artery occlusion. J Cereb Blood Flow Metabol 1:53–60Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ginsberg MD, Busto R (1989) Rodent models of cerebral ischemia. Stroke 20:1627–1642Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kudo M, Aoyama A, Ichimori S, Fukunaga N (1982) An animal model of cerebral infarction. Homologous blood clot emboli in rats. Stroke 13:505–508Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Futrell N, Watson BD, Dietrich WD, Prado R, Millikan C, Ginsberg MD (1988) A new model of embolic stroke produced by photochemical injury to the carotid artery in the rat. Ann Neurol 23:251–157Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Diaz FG, Ausman JI (1980) Experimental cerebral ischemia. Neurosurgery 6:436–445Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Watson BD, Dietrich BD, Busto R, Wachtel MS, Ginsberg MD (1985) Induction of reproducible brain infarction by photochemically initiated thrombosis. Ann Neurol 17:497–504Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hatashita S, Koike J, Sonokawa T, Ishii S (1985) Cerebral edema associated with craniectomy and arterial hypertension. Stroke 16:661–668Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Watson BD, Prado R, Dietrich WD, Busto R, Scheinberg P, Ginsberg MD (1987) Mitigation of evolving cortical infarction in rats by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator following photochemically induced thrombosis. In: Raichle ME, Powers WJ (eds) Cerebrovascular diseases, Raven Press. New York, pp 317–330Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Grome JJ, Gojowczyk G, Hofmann W, Graham DI (1988) Quantification of photochemically induced focal cerebral ischemia in the rat. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 8:89–95Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    van Bruggen N, Cullen BM, Doran M, Williams SR, Gadian DG, Cremer JE (1992) T2- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of a focal ischemic lesion in rat brain. Stroke 23: 576–582Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Belliveau JW, Rosen BR, Kantor HL et al. (1990) Functional cerebral imaging by susceptibility contrast MR. Magn Reson Med 14:538–546Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Reith W, Forsting M, Dörfler A, v Kummer R, Sartor K (1992) Laser-Doppler flowmetry: experience with a new method of cerebral blood flow in experimental brain research. Neuroradiology [Suppl] 34:S 56Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Memezawa H, Smith ML, Siesjö BK (1992) Penumbral tissues salvaged by reperfusion following middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Stroke 23:552–559Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stehling MK, Turner R, Mansfield P (1991) Echo planar imaging: magnetic resonance imaging in a fraction of a second. Science 254:43–50Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Edelman RR, Mattle HP, Atkinson DJ (1990) Cerebral blood flow: assessment with dynamic contrast-enhanced T2*-weighted MR imaging at 1.5 T. Radiology 176:211–220Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rosen BR, Belliveau JW, Chien D (1989) Perfusion imaging by nuclear magnetic resonance. Magn Reson Q 5:263–281Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Forsting
    • 1
  • W. Reith
    • 1
  • A. Dörfler
    • 1
  • U. Meyding-Lamadé
    • 1
  • K. Sartor
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeuroradiologyUniversity of Heidelberg Medical SchoolHeidelbergGermany

Personalised recommendations