Pflügers Archiv

, Volume 336, Issue 3, pp 263–270 | Cite as

Development of intra-renal solute gradients in foetal and post-natal life

  • Margaret W. Stanier


Tissue from three regions of the kidneys of foetal, newborn and mature pigs, sheep and cows was excissed and the intrarenal gradients for sodium, potassium and urea were measured. Gradients were slight in pig and calf foetuses. Sheep foetuses showed a steep intra-renal gradient for sodium which did not change in early post-natal life. The gradient for sodium and urea increased in all species after birth but there were species differences in the rate of increase. In newborn and weaned pigs administration of sodium chloride or urea did not affect the intra-renal gradient for either substance; both acted as osmotic diuretics. Injection of lysinevasopressin increased urinary osmolarity but without change in the intra-renal gradient. It is suggested that maturation of renal concentrating ability runs parallel with the development of the intra-renal solute gradient.

Key words

Renal Gradients Foetal and Neonatal Kidneys-Na+ and Urea Renal Tissue 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Alexander, D. P., Nixon, D. A., Widdas, W. F., Wohlzogen, F. C.: Renal function in the sheep foetus. J. Physiol. (Lond.)140, 14–22 (1958).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Atherton, J. C., Hai, M. A., Thomas, S.: The time course of changes in renal tissue composition during mannitol diuresis in the rat. J. Physiol. (Lond.)197, 411–428 (1968).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Edelmann, C. M.: Glomerulo-tubular balance in the developing kidney. Proc. 4th Int. Congr. Nephrol., Stockholm 1969, vol. 1, pp. 22–28. Basel-München-New York: Karger 1970.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Edelmann, C. M., Barnett, H. L., Troupkou, V.: Renal concentrating mechanisms in new-born infants: effects of dietary protein and water content, role of urea and responsiveness to anti-diuretic hormone. J. clin. Invest.39, 1062–1069 (1960).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Forrest, J. N., Stanier, M. W.: Kidney composition and renal concentration ability in young rabbits. J. Physiol. (Lond.)187, 1–4 (1966).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Horster, M., Valtin, H.: Post-natal development of renal function: micropuncture and clearance studies in dogs. J. clin. Invest.50, 779–795 (1971).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jacque, L.: De la genese des liquides amniotique et allantoiden: cryoscopie et analyses chimiques. Arch. int. Physiol.3, 463–469 (1960).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kramer, K.: Medullary blood flow and the countercurrent system. Leiden: Proc. 22nd Int. Physiol. Congr., vol 1, pp. 381–383 1962. Amsterdam: I.U.P.S. Excerpta Medica 1962.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    McCance, R. A., Stanier, M. W.: The function of the metanephros of foetal rabbits and pigs. J. Physiol. (Lond.)151, 479–483 (1960).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    McCance, R. A., Widdowson, E. M.: Metabolism, growth and renal function of piglets in the first days of life. J. Physiol. (Lond.)133, 373–384 (1956).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schmidt-Nielsen, B., O'Dell, R.: Structure and concentrating mechanisms in the mammalian kidney. Amer. J. Physiol.200, 1119–1124 (1969).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schmidt-Nielsen, B., O'Dell, R., Osaki, H.: Interdependence of urea and electrolytes in the production of a concentrated urine. Amer. J. Physiol.200, 1125–1132 (1961).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sperber, I.: Studies on the mammalian kidney. Zool. Bidr. Uppsala22, 249–431 (1944).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ullrich, K. J., Jarausch, K. H.: Untersuchungen zum Problem der Harnkonzentrierung und Harnverdünnung. Pflügers arch. ges. Physiol.262, 537–550 (1956).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vernier, R. L., Smith, F. G.: Foetal and neonatal kidney. In: Biology of Gestation, Vol. 2, N. S. Assali, ed. New York-London: Academic Press 1968.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margaret W. Stanier
    • 1
  1. 1.Agricultural Research Council Institute of Animal PhysiologyCambridgeEngland

Personalised recommendations