Occupational exposure to hexahydrophthalic anhydride: air analysis, percutaneous absorption, and biological monitoring

  • B. A. G. Jönsson
  • H. Welinder
  • C. Hansson
  • B. Ståhlbom
Article

Summary

Urinary hexahydrophthalic acid (HHP acid) levels were determined in 20 workers occupationally exposed to hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) air levels of 11–220μg/m3. The levels of HHP acid in urine increased rapidly during exposure and the decreases were also rapid after the end of exposure. The elimination half-time of HHP acid was 5h, which was significantly longer than in experimentally exposed volunteers, possibly indicating distribution to more than one compartment. There was a close correlation between time-weighted average levels of HHPA in air and creatinine-adjusted levels of HHP acid in urine collected during the last 4 h of exposure (r = 0.90), indicating that determination of urinary HHP acid levels is suitable as a method for biological monitoring of HHPA exposure. An air level of 100 μg/m3 corresponded to a postshift urinary HHP acid level of ca. 900 nmol/mmol creatinine in subjects performing light work for 8h. Percutaneous absorption of HHPA was studied by application of HHPA in petrolatum to the back skin of three volunteers. The excreted amounts of HHP acid in urine, as a fraction of the totally applied amount of HHPA, were within intervals of 1.4%–4.5%, 0.2%–1.3%, and 0%–0.4% respectively, indicating that the contribution from percutaneous absorption is of minor importance in a method for biological monitoring.

Key words

Hexahydrophthalic anhydride Hexahydrophthalic acid Urine Skin absorption Biological monitoring 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Botham PA, Rattay NJ, Woodcock DR, Walsh ST, Hext PM (1989) The induction of respiratory allergy in guinea-pigs following intradermal injection of trimellitic anhydride: a comparison with the response to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. Toxicol Lett 47:25–39Google Scholar
  2. Eberson L, Landström L (1972) Studies on cyclic anhydrides. IV. Rate constants for the hydrolysis of some cyclic anhydrides exhibiting ring strain. Acta Chem Scand 26:239–249Google Scholar
  3. Hayes J, Daniel R, Tee RD, Barnes PJ, Chung F, Newman Taylor AJ (1992) Specific immunological and bronchopulmonary responses following intradermal sensitization to free trimellitic anhydride in guinea pigs. Clin Exp Allergy 2:694–700Google Scholar
  4. Jönsson B, Skarping G (1991) Method for the biological monitoring of hexahydrophthalic anhydride by the determination of hexahydrophthalic acid in urine using gas chromatography and selected-ion monitoring. J Chromatogr 572:117–131Google Scholar
  5. Jönsson BAG, Skerfving S (1993) Toxicokinetics and biological monitoring in experimental exposure of humans to gaseous hexahydrophthalic anhydride. Scand J Work Environ Health 19:183–190Google Scholar
  6. Jönsson B, Welinder H, Skarping G (1991a) Hexahydrophthalic acid in urine as an index of exposure to hexahydrophthalic anhydride. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 63:77–79Google Scholar
  7. Jönsson B, Welinder H, Skarping G (1991b) Determination of hexahydrophthalic anhydride in air using gas chromatography. J Chromatogr 558:247–256Google Scholar
  8. Lustgarten JA, Wenk RE (1972) Simple rapid kinetic method for serum creatinine measurement. Clin Chem 18:1419–1422(Modified by Masson P, Dept of Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital, Lund. Pesonal communication)Google Scholar
  9. Moller DR, Gallagher JS, Bernstein DI, Wilcox TG, Burroughs HE, Bernstein IL (1985) Detection of IgE-mediated respiratory sensitization in workers exposed to hexahydrophthalic anhydride. J Allergy Clin Immunol 75:663–672Google Scholar
  10. Nielsen J (1992) Airways' effecs in workers exposed to organic acid anhydrides. Dissertation. ISBN 92-628-0678-5, Lund UniversityGoogle Scholar
  11. Palacian E, Gonzalez MP, Pineiro M, Hernandes F (1990) Dicarboxylic acid anhydrides as dissociating agents of protein-containing structures. Mol Cell Biochem 97:101–111Google Scholar
  12. Pfäffli P, Savolainen H (1991) Determination of 4-methyl-cis-hexa-hydrophthalic anhydride in human blood by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Analyst 116:1333–1336Google Scholar
  13. Pfäffli P, Savolainen H, Keskinen H (1989) Determination of carboxylic acids in biological samples as their trichloroethyl esters by gas chromatography. Chromatographia 27:483–488Google Scholar
  14. Venables KM (1989) Low molecular weight chemicals, hypersensitivity, and direct toxicity: the acid anhydrides. Br J Ind Med 45:222–232Google Scholar
  15. Wass U, Belin L (1990) An in vitro method for predicting sensitizing properties of inhaled chemicals. Scand J Work Environ Health 16:208–214Google Scholar
  16. Welinder H (1991) Occupational airways hypersensitivity to some small organic molecules. Exposure, response, and pathomechanism. Dissertation. ISBN 91-628-0173-2, Lund UniversityGoogle Scholar
  17. Welinder H, Nielsen J (1991) Immunologic tests of specific antibodies to organic acid anhydrides. Allergy 46:601–609Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. A. G. Jönsson
    • 1
  • H. Welinder
    • 1
  • C. Hansson
    • 2
  • B. Ståhlbom
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Occupational and Environmental MedicineUniversity HospitalLundSweden
  2. 2.Department of Occupational DermatologyUniversity HospitalLundSweden
  3. 3.Department of Occupational MedicineUniversity of LinköpingLinköpingSweden

Personalised recommendations