Advertisement

Pflügers Archiv

, Volume 407, Issue 3, pp 312–319 | Cite as

The effects of hypoxia on the metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses to shivering produced by external and central cooling in the pigeon

  • M. Gleeson
  • G. M. Barnas
  • W. Rautenberg
Heart, Circulation, Respiration and Blood; Environmental and Exercise Physiology

Abstract

  1. 1.

    Respiratory, cardiovascular and blood gas responses of pigeons to spinal cord cooling (36±1°C), to ambient cooling (Ta=5°C) and to simultaneous spinal cord and ambient cooling were measured at three different levels of fractional inspired oxygen concentration (F1O2=0.209, 0.10 and 0.07).

     
  2. 2.

    Shivering and the ‘extra’\(\dot VO_2 \) provoked by ambient and/or spinal cord cooling were more or less reduced during hypoxic exposure depending on the intensity of cold stress and hypoxic states. At F1O2=0.10 shivering was markedly reduced and sometimes inhibited, whereas at F1O2=0.07 any pattern of cold tremor was inhibited. The accompanying cardiorespiratory responses were similar to those of thermoneutral controls exposed to the same F1O2. The amount by which\(\dot VO_2 \) was reduced in the pigeons exposed to hypoxia during ambient and/or spinal cord cooling was correlated, at both levels of hypoxia, to the thermoregulatory\(\dot VO_2 \) (viz. the ‘extra’\(\dot VO_2 \) produced by cooling) prior to exposure to the hypoxic gas. The effect of hypoxia on shivering and associated cardiorespiratory adjustments was rapid and was completely reversible on return to air.

     
  3. 3.

    We conclude that the thermoregulatory system in pigeons is sensitive to hypoxia, as is the case for mammals. The F1O2 that begins to inhibit thermoregulatory and metabolic responses to cold is lower in birds, perhaps as a result of the better ability of the bird to increase intrapulmonary gas and blood O2 convective transports when exposed to hypoxic gas. Alternatively, this difference could be explained on the basis that birds, unlike mammals, appear to lack the capacity for the nonshivering fraction of thermogenesis which is thought to be selectively susceptible to moderate hypoxia.

     

Key words

Pigeon Shivering Hypoxia Respiration Cardiovascular responses Thermoregulation Spinal cord 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barnas GM, Rautenberg W (1984) Respiratory responses to shivering produced by external and central cooling in the pigeon. Pflügers Arch 401:228–232Google Scholar
  2. Barnas GM, Nomoto S, Rautenberg W (1984) External and central cooling in the pigeon. Pflügers Arch 401:223–227Google Scholar
  3. Bhatia B, George S, Rao TL (1969) Hypoxic poikilothermia in rats. J Appl Physiol 27:583–586Google Scholar
  4. Blatteis CM (1972) Shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis during hypoxia. Proc. Intern. Symp. Environ. Physiol. Bioenergetics, Washington DC, pp 151–160Google Scholar
  5. Blatteis CM, Gilbert TM (1974) Hypoxia and shivering thermogenesis in cold-acclimatized miniature pigs. J Appl Physiol 36:453–456Google Scholar
  6. Bouverot P (1978) Control of breathing in birds compared with mammals. Physiol Rev 58:604–655Google Scholar
  7. Bouverot P, Hildwein G, Oulhen P (1976) Ventilatory and circulatory O2 convection at 4000 m in pigeon at neutral or cold temperature. Respir Physiol 28:371–385Google Scholar
  8. Butler PJ (1970) The effect of progressive hypoxia on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems of the pigeon and duck. J Physiol (Lond) 201:527–538Google Scholar
  9. Farkas M, Donhoffer S (1973) Interrelationships between the effects of hypoxia and ambient temperature on heat production and body temperature in the adult guinea pig. Acta Physiol Acad Sci Hung 43:301–308Google Scholar
  10. Farkas M, Donhoffer S (1976) The relationships between heat production and body temperature in the new-born and the adult guinea pig after termination of exposure to hypoxia and hypercapnia. Acta Physiol Sci Hung 47:1–14Google Scholar
  11. Gellhorn E (1937) Oxygen deficiency, carbon dioxide, and temperature regulation. Am J Physiol 120:190–194Google Scholar
  12. Grubb B, Mills DC, Colacino JM, Schmidt-Nielsen K (1977) Effect of arterial carbon dioxide on cerebral blood flow in ducks. Am J Physiol 232:H596-H601Google Scholar
  13. Hemingway A (1963) Shivering. Physiol Rev 43:397–422Google Scholar
  14. Hemingway A, Nahas GG (1952) Effect of hypoxia on the metabolic response to cold. J Appl Physiol 5:267–272Google Scholar
  15. Hill JR (1959) The oxygen consumption of newborn and adult mammals. Its dependence on the oxygen tension in inspired air and on the environmental temperature. J Physiol (Lond) 149:346–373Google Scholar
  16. Horstman DH, Banderet LR (1977) Hypoxia-induced metabolic and core temperature changes in the squirrel monkey. J Appl Physiol 42:273–278Google Scholar
  17. Moore RE (1959) Oxygen consumption and body temperature in newborn kittens subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation. J Physiol (Lond) 149:500–518Google Scholar
  18. Mott JC (1963) The effects of baroreceptor and chemoreceptor stimulation on shivering. J Physiol (Lond) 166:563–586Google Scholar
  19. Pichotka J, Luthardt Th (1959) Über die Abhängigkeit der O2-Aufnahme von der O2-Spannung der Einatmungsluft nach Versuchen am Meerschweinchen. Pflügers Arch 269:417–427Google Scholar
  20. Rautenberg W (1969) Untersuchungen zur Temperaturregulation wärme- und kälteakklimatisierter Tauben. Z. Vergl Physiol 62:221–234Google Scholar
  21. Severinghaus JW (1965) Blood gas concentrations. In: Fenn WO, Rahn H (eds) Handbook of physiology, vol 1, sec. 3. Respiration American Physiological Society, Washington DC, pp 1475–1487Google Scholar
  22. Tucker VA (1968) Respiratory physiology of house sparrows in relation to high-altitude flight. J Exp Biol 48:55–66Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Gleeson
    • 1
  • G. M. Barnas
    • 1
  • W. Rautenberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für Tierphysiologie, Arbeitsgruppe TemperaturregulationRuhruniversität BochumBochumFederal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations