Pflügers Archiv

, Volume 392, Issue 3, pp 268–271 | Cite as

Response of ventilatory muscles of the rat to endurance training

  • Russell L. Moore
  • Philip D. Gollnick
Heart, Circulation, Respiration and Blood; Environmental and Exercise Physiology

Abstract

The effect of endurance training on the oxidative and glycolytic potentials of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles of rats has been studied. Training consisted of treadmill running (28 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/wk) for periods ranging from 8–26 weeks. Exercise of similar duration and intensity produced a glycogen depletion in the diaphragm and intercostal muscles of nontrained rats. Oxidative potential was estimated from the activity of the mitochondrial marker enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). The activities of phosphorylase (PHOS), hexokinase (HK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined as well as the distribution of the LDH isozymes. SDH activity averaged 44 (42–51) and 17 (10–22)% (P<0.01) greater in the plantaris and diaphragm muscles, respectively, after 8–12 weeks of endurance running as compared to the sedentary animals. There was no change in the SDH activity of the intercostal muscles or in the activities of the glycolytic enzymes. There was also no change in the distribution of the isozymes of LDH. Extending the duration of the training program to 26 weeks did not produce any additional alteration in the magnitude of the adaptation observed after the initial training period. Comparative studies of different types of muscles demonstrated that the diaphragm, although having a fiber composition somewhat similar to that of a fast-twitch skeletal muscle, has a metabolic profile that is intermediate between pure slow twitch skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle.

Key words

Succinate dehydrogenase Training and ventilatory muscles Phosphorylase Hexokinase Lactate dehydrogenase Diaphragm Intercostal muscles Glycogen depletion 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ariano MA, Armstrong RB, Edgerton VR (1973) Hindlimb muscle fiber populations of five mamals. J Histochem Cytochem 21:51–55Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Armstrong RB, Saubert CW IV, Sembrowich WL, Shepherd RE, Gollnick PD (1974) Glycogen depletion in rat skeletal muscle fibers at different intensities and durations of exercise. Pflügers Arch 352:243–256Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baker MA, Horvath SM (1964) Influence of water temperature on oxygen uptake by swimming rats. J Appl Physiol 19:12–15Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baldwin KM, Klinkerfuss GH, Terjung RL, Molé PA, Holloszy JO (1972) Respiratory capacity of white, red, and intermediate muscle: adaptive response to exercise. Am J Physiol 222:373–378Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baldwin KM, Winder WW, Terjung RL, Holloszy JO (1973) Glycolytic enzymes in different types of skeletal muscle: adaptation to exercise. Am J Physiol 225:962–966Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bass A, Brdiczka D, Eyer P, Hopfer S, Pette D (1969) Metabolic differentiation of distinct muscle types at the level of enzymatic organization. Eur J Biochem 10:198–206Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bellman MJ, Mittman C (1980) Ventilatory muscle training improves exercise capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Am Rev Respir Dis 21:273–280Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Crosfill ML, Widdicombe JG (1961) Physical characteristics of the chest and lungs and the work of breathing in different mammalian species. J Physiol 158:1–14Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Davies JA, Packer L, Brooks GA (1981) Biochemical adaptations of mitochondria, muscle, and whole-animal respiration to endurance training. Arch Biochem Biophy 209:538–553Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fixler DE, Atkins SM, Mitchell JH, Horwitz LD (1976) Blood flow to respiratory, cardiac, and limb muscles in dogs during graded exercise. Am J Physiol 231:1515–1519Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    George JC, Susheela AK (1961) A histophysiological study of the rat diaphragm. Biol Bull 121:471–480Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gilboe DP, Larson KL, Nuttall FQ (1972) Radioactive method for the assay of glycogen phosphorylase. Anal Biochem 47:20–27Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gollnick PD, Ianuzzo CD (1972) Hormonal deficiences and the metabolic adaptations of rats to training. Am J Physiol 223:278–282Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Górski J, Namiot Z, Giedrojć (1978) Effect of exercise on metabolism of glycogen and triglycerides in the respiratory muscles. Pflügers Arch 377:251–254Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Holloszy JO, Booth FW (1973) Biochemical adaptation to endurance exercise in muscle. Ann Rev Physiol 38:217–232Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ianuzzo CD, Gollnick PD, Armstrong RB (1976) Compensatory adaptations of skeletal muscle fiber types to a long-term functional overload. Life Sci 19:1517–1524Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Keens TG, Chen V, Patel P, O'Brian P, Levison H, Ianuzzo CD (1978) Cellular adaptations of the ventilatory muscles to a chronic increased respiratory load. J Appl Physiol 44:905–908Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kobayashi K, Neely JR (1979) Control of maximal rates of glycolysis in rat cardiac muscle. Circ Res 44:166–175Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kugelberg E, Lindegren B (1979) Transmission and contraction fatigue of rat motor units in relation to succinate dehydrogenase activity of motor unit fibres. J Physiol 288:285–300Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Leith DE, Bradley M (1976) Ventilatory muscle strength and endurance training. J Appl Physiol 41:508–516Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lieberman DA, Maxwell LC, Faulkner JA (1972) Adaptation of guinea pig diaphragm muscle to aging and endurance training. Am J Physiol 222:556–560Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    McArdle WD (1976) Metabolic stress of endurance swimming in the laboratory rat. J Appl Physiol 22:50–54Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mrśulja BB, Terzić M, Varagić VM (1970) The effect of physostigmine and neostigmine on the concentration of glycogen in diaphragm and triceps muscle of the rat. Biochem Pharmacol 19:2155–2130Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Passonneau JV, Lauderdale VR (1974) A comparison of three methods of glycogen measurement in tissues. Ann Biochem Exptl Med 60:405–412Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Peter JB, Barnard RJ, Edgerton VR, Gillespie CA, Stempel KE (1972) Metabolic profiles of the three fiber types of skeletal muscle of guinea pigs and rabbits. Biochemistry 11:2627–2633Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Robertson CH Jr, Foster GH, Johnson RL Jr (1977) The relationship of respiratory failure to the oxygen consumption of, lactate production by, and distribution of blood flow among respiratory muscles during increasing inspiratory resistance. J Clin Invest 59:31–42Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Robertson CH Jr, Pagel MA, Johnson RL Jr (1977) The distribution of blood flow, oxygen consumption and work output among the respiratory muscles during unobstructed hyperventilation. J Clin Invest 59:43–50Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rochester DF, Bettini G (1976) Diaphragmatic blood flow and energy in the dog. J Clin Invest 57:661–672Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Roussos CS, Macklem PT (1977) Diaphragmatic fatigue in man. J Appl Physiol 43:189–197Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Saubert CW IV, Armstrong RB, Shepherd RE, Sembrowich WL, Gollnick PD (1973) Anaerobic enzyme adaptations to sprint training in rats. Pflügers Arch 341:305–312Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sembrowich WL, Knudson MB, Gollnick PD (1977) Muscle metabolism and cardiac function of the myopathic hamster following training. J Appl Physiol 43:936–941Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shepherd RE, Gollnick PD (1976) Oxygen uptake of rats at different work intensities. Pflügers Arch 362:219–222Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wroblewski F, Gregory KF (1961) Lactic dehydrogenase isozymes and their distribution in normal tissues and plasma and in disease states. Ann NY Acad Sci 94:912–932Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Russell L. Moore
    • 1
  • Philip D. Gollnick
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physical Education for MenWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA

Personalised recommendations