The influence of innervation on the differentiation of contractile speeds of developing chick muscles
- 30 Downloads
The role of innervation of the differentiation of contractile speeds was studied in the slow anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD) and fast posterior latissimus dorsi (PLD) muscle of the chick.
These muscles become innervated during the 12th and 15th day of embryonic development. At this time both muscles contract and relax extremely slowly and their contractile speeds are very similar. By the 18th day their contraction and relaxation becomes more rapid. It is at this time that the contractile characteristics of both muscles also become very different from each other, ALD being about 3 times slower than PLD. Thus innervation percedes differentiation of contractile speeds by several days.
The influence of innervation on the contractile characteristics of developing slow and fast muscles was studied during muscle regeneration in adults. When a slow ALD muscle was minced and implanted in place of a fast PLD the newly regenerated ALD became innervated by a PLD nerve and resembled a fast PLD. Conversely, when PLD muscles were minced and replaced ALD the regenerated PLD was innervated by ALD nerve and became slow.
Histological examination revealed that the regenerated ALD became focally innervated, and the regenerated PLD multiply innervated.
Thus, the contractile speeds are not predetermined properties of the muscle fibre. Both contractile characteristic and the pattern of innervation of developing muscles are determined by the motor nerve.
Key wordsContractile speeds Development Slow muscles Fast muscles
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Albuquerque, E. X., Thesleff, S.: A comparative study of membrane properties of innervated and chronically denervated fast and slow skeletal muscles of the rat. Acta physiol. scand.73, 471–480, (1968)Google Scholar
- Bennett, M. R., Pettigrew, A. G.: The formation of synapses in reinnervated and cross-reinnervated striated muscle during development. J. Physiol. (Lond.)241, 547–573 (1974)Google Scholar
- Bennett, M. R., Pettigrew, A. G., Taylor, R. S.: The formation of synapses in reinnervated and cross-reinnervated avian muscle. J. Physiol. (Lond.)230, 331–357 (1973)Google Scholar
- Buller, A. J., Eccles, J. C., Eccles, R. M.: Interactions between motoneurones and muscles in respect of characteristic speeds of their responses. J. Physiol. (Lond.)150, 417–439 (1960)Google Scholar
- Carlson, B. M.: The regeneration of skeletal muscle—a review. Amer. J. Anat.137, 119–150 (1973)Google Scholar
- Carlson, B. M., Gutmann, E.: Development of contractile properties of minced muscle regenerates in the rat. Exp. Neurol.36, 239–249 (1972)Google Scholar
- Denny-Brown, D.: Nature of postural reflexes. Proc. roy. Soc. B104, 252–301 (1929)Google Scholar
- Eccles, J. C., Eccles, R. M., Lundberg, A.: The convergence of monosynaptic excitatory afferents onto many different species of alpha motoneurone. J. Physiol. (Lond.)137, 22–50 (1957)Google Scholar
- Fedde, M. R.: Electrical properties and acetylcholine sensitivity of singly and multiply innervated avian muscle fibres. J. gen. Physiol.53, 624–637 (1969)Google Scholar
- Ginsborg, B. L.: Some properties of avian skeletal muscle fibres with multiple neuromuscular junctions. J. Physiol. (Lond.)154, 581–598 (1960)Google Scholar
- Gordon, T., Perry, R., Tuffery, A. R., Vrbová, G.: Possible mechanisms determining synapse formation in developing skeletal muscles of the chick. Cell. Tiss. Res.155, 13–25 (1974)Google Scholar
- Gutmann, E., Carlson, B. M.: Contractile and histochemical properties of regenerating cross-transplanted fast and slow muscles in the rat. Pflügers Arch.353, 227–241 (1975)Google Scholar
- Hamburger, V., Oppenheim, R.: Prehatching motility and hatching behaviour of the chick. J. exp. Zool.166, 171–204 (1967)Google Scholar
- Hník, P., Jirmanová, J., Vyklický, L., Zelená, J.: Fast and slow muscles of the chick after nerve cross-union. J. Physiol. (Lond.)193, 309–325 (1967)Google Scholar
- Jirmanová, J., Zelená, J.: Ultrastructural transformation of fast chicken muscle fibre induced by nerve union. Z. Zellforsch.146, 103–121 (1973)Google Scholar
- Karnovsky, M. J., Roots, L.: A “direct-colouring” thiocholine method for cholinesterase. J. Histochem. Cytochem.12, 219–221 (1964)Google Scholar
- Kuffler, S. W.: Electric potential changes at an isolated nerve-muscle junction. J. Neurophysiol.5, 18–26 (1942)Google Scholar
- McArdle, J. J., Albuquerque, E. X.: A study of the reinnervation of fast and slow mammalian muscles. J. gen. Physiol.61, 1–23 (1973)Google Scholar
- Melichna, J., Gutmann, E., Syrový, I.: Developmental changes in contraction properties, ATPase activity and muscle fibre patterns of fast and slow chickens muscle. Physiol. bohemoslov.23, 511–520 (1974)Google Scholar
- Perry, Roslyn, Purves, R. D., Vrbová, G.: A possible mechanism determining synaptic density on muscle fibres. J. Physiol. (Lond.)329, 89–90P (1974)Google Scholar
- Purves, R. D., Vrbová, G.: Some characteristics of myotubes cultured from slow and fast chick muscles. J. Cell Physiol.84, 97–100 (1974)Google Scholar
- Salmons, S., Vrbová, G.: The influence of activity on some contractile characteristics of mammalian fast and slow muscles. J. Physiol. (Lond.)201, 535–549 (1969)Google Scholar
- Sreter, F., Holtzer, S., Gergely, J., Holtzer, H.: Some properties of embryonic myosin. J. Cell Biol.55, 586–594 (1972)Google Scholar
- Studitsky, A., Zhenevskaya, R., Rumyantseva, O.: The role of neurotrophic influences upon the restitution of structure and function of regenerating muscles. In: The effect of use and disuse on neuromuscular functions, pp. 71–82. Ed. E. Gutmann and P. Hník. Prague: Publishing House of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, 1962Google Scholar
- Vrbová, G.: Changes in motor reflexes produced by tenotomy. J. Physiol. (Lond.)166, 241–250 (1963a)Google Scholar
- Vrbová, G.: The effects of motoneurone activity on the speed of contraction of striated muscle. J. Physiol. (Lond.)169, 513–526 (1963b)Google Scholar
- Vyskočil, F., Vyklický, L., Huston, R.: Quantum content at the neuromuscular junction of fast muscle after cross union with the nerve of slow muscle in the chick. Brit. Res.26, 443–445 (1971)Google Scholar
- Zelená, J., Jirmanová, J.: Ultrastructure of chicken slow muscle after nerve cross union. Exp. Neurol.38, 272–285 (1973)Google Scholar