Pflügers Archiv

, Volume 365, Issue 1, pp 37–47 | Cite as

Habituation and conditioning of the defence reactions and their cardiovascular components in cats and dogs

  • Jane Martin
  • Colin J. Sutherland
  • Andrzej W. Zbrożyna
Article

Summary

Cardiovascular and behavioural responses elicited by novel, noxious or aversive stimuli have been studied in dogs and cats. Hindlimb blood flow, heart rate and arterial blood pressure increased in dogs when an orienting response was elicited by a novel stimulus (a sound). Similar cardiovascular responses occurred in dogs to mild noxious stimulus and in cats displaying a threatening posture when confronted by a dog. The cardiovascular components of the orienting response to a sound habituated with repetition of the sound. In two dogs however sensitization (increase) of the response occurred with repetition of the sound. The cardiovascular response in cats confronted by a dog was modified by repetition of the confrontations: the vasodilation in the muscles waned and eventually was replaced by vasoconstriction while the cardiac acceleration and pressor response persisted. The threatening response was the most persistent. The modification of the behavioural and cardiovascular aspect of the response was not developing in parallel. The cardiovascular pattern was altered before any apparent changes of the behavioural pattern occurred. The cardiovascular responses to the noxious stimulus in dogs and cardiovascular components of the defence reaction in cats were readily conditioned to a sound. The possible role of the modification of the cardiovascular pattern in defence reactions in pathogenesis of hypertension is discussed.

Key words

Cardiovascular Habituation Conditioning Defence reactions 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrahams, V. C., Hilton, S. M., Zbrożyna, A. W.: Active muscle vasodilatation produced by stimulation of the brain stem: its significance in the defence reaction. J. Physiol. (Lond.)154, 491–513 (1960)Google Scholar
  2. Abrahams, V. C., Hilton, S. M., Zbrożyna, A. W.: The role of active muscle vasodilatation in the alerting stage of the defence reaction. J. Physiol. (Lond.)171, 189–202 (1964)Google Scholar
  3. Bard, P., Macht, M. B.: The behaviour of chronically decerebrate cats. In: Ciba Foundation Symposium on Neurological Basis of Behaviour, pp. 55–71. London: Churchill 1958Google Scholar
  4. Benson, H., Shapiro, D., Tursky, B., Schwartz, G. E.: Decreased systolic blood pressure through operant conditioning techniques in patients with essential hypertension. Science173, 740 (1971)Google Scholar
  5. Bleecker, E. R., Engel, B. T.: Learned control of ventricular rate in patients with atrial fibrillation. Psychosom. Med.35, 161–170 (1973)Google Scholar
  6. Bølme, P., Novotny, J.: Conditional reflex activation of the sympathetic cholinergic vasodilator nerves in the dog. Acta physiol. scand.77, 58–67 (1969)Google Scholar
  7. Bølme, P., Ngai, S. H., Uvnas, B., Wallenberg, L. R.: Circulatory and behavioural effects on electrical stimulation of the sympathetic vasodilator areas in the hypothalamus and the mesencephalon in unanaesthetized dogs. Acta physiol. scand.70, 334–346 (1967)Google Scholar
  8. Caraffa-Braga, E., Granata, L., Pinotti, O.: Changes in blood-flow distribution during acute emotional stress in dogs. Pflügers Arch.339, 203–216 (1973)Google Scholar
  9. Coote, J. H., Perez-Gonzalez, J.: The baroreceptor reflex during stimulation of the hypothalamic defence reaction. J. Physiol. (Lond.)224, 74–75P (1972)Google Scholar
  10. Datey, K. K., Deshmukh, S. N., Dalvi, C. P., Vinekar, S. L.: “Shavasan”: a yogic exercise in the management of hypertension. Angiology20, 325–333 (1969)Google Scholar
  11. Debley, V. G.: Miniature hydraulic occluder for zero blood flow determination. Amer. J. Physiol.31, 138–139P (1971)Google Scholar
  12. Di Cara, L. V., Miller, N. E.: Transfer of instrumentally learned heart-rate changes from curarized to non curarized state: implications for a mediational hypothesis. J. comp. physiol. Psychol.68, 159–162 (1969)Google Scholar
  13. Dykman, R. A., Gantt, W. H.: Cardiovascular conditioning in dogs and humans. In: Physiological Basis of Psychiatry (W. H. Gantt, ed.) pp. 171–195. Springfield, Ill.: Ch. C. Thomas 1958Google Scholar
  14. Elder, S. T., Ruiz, Z. R., Deabler, H. L., Dillenkoffer, R. L.: Instrumental conditioning of diastolic blood pressure in essential hypertensive patients. J. appl. Behav. Anal.6, 377–382 (1973)Google Scholar
  15. Eliasson, S., Folkow, B., Lindgren, P., Uvnäs, B.: Activation of vasodilator nerves to the skeletal muscles in cat by hypothalamic stimulation. Acta physiol. scand.23, 333–351 (1951)Google Scholar
  16. Feigl, E., Johansson, B., Löfving, V.: Renal vasoconstriction and the “defence reaction”. Acta physiol. scand.62, 429–435 (1964)Google Scholar
  17. Forsyth, R. P.: Sympathetic nervous system control of distribution of cardiac output in unanaesthetized monkeys. Fed. Proc.31, 1240–1244 (1972)Google Scholar
  18. Harris, A. H., Gilliam, W. J., Findley, J. D., Brady, J. V.: Instrumental conditioning of large magnitude, daily, 12-hour blood pressure elevations in the baboon. Science182, 175–177 (1973)Google Scholar
  19. Harris, R. E., Singer, M. T.: Interaction of personality and stress in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. In: Neural Control of Hypertension. Monograph No. 16, Am. Heart Ass., pp. 104–115, 1968Google Scholar
  20. Hilton, S. M.: Inhibition of baroreceptor reflex on hypothalamic stimulation. J. Physiol. (Lond.)165, 56–57P (1963)Google Scholar
  21. Hokanson, J. E., Burgess, M., Cohen, M. F.: Effects of displaced aggression on systolic blood pressure. J. abnorm. Soc. Psychol.67, 214–218 (1963)Google Scholar
  22. von Holst, D.: Renal failure as the cause of death in Tupaia belangeri exposed to persistent social stress. J. comp. Physiol.78, 236–273 (1972)Google Scholar
  23. Hutchinson, R. R.: The environmental causes of aggression. In: Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (J. K. Cole and D. D. Jensen, eds.), pp. 155–181. Lincoln: University Nebraska Press 1973Google Scholar
  24. Hutchinson, R. R., Renfrew, J. W., Young, G. A.: Effects of long term shock and associated stimuli on aggressive and manual responses. J. exp. Anal. Behav.15, 141–166 (1971)Google Scholar
  25. Lader, M.: Psychosomatic and psychophysiological aspects of anxiety. In: Modern Trends in Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 2 (O. W. Hill, ed.), pp. 35–52. London: Butterworths 1970Google Scholar
  26. Lauson, H. D., Bradley, S. E., Cournand, A., Andrews, V. V.: The renal circulation in shock. J. clin. Invest.23, 381–402 (1944)Google Scholar
  27. Mancia, G., Baccelli, G., Zanchetti, A.: Regulation of renal circulation during behavioural changes in the cat. Amer. J. Physiol.227, 536–542 (1974)Google Scholar
  28. Menzies, R.: Conditioned vasomotor responses in human subjects. J. Psychol.4, 75–120 (1937)Google Scholar
  29. Patel, C. H.: Yoga and biofeedback in the management of hypertension. Lancet1973, 1053–1055Google Scholar
  30. Pshonik, A. T.: Cerebral cortex and the receptor function of the organism (Russian). Moscow: State Publ. House, Sovetskaya Nauka 1952Google Scholar
  31. Reiser, M. F., Rosenbaum, M., Ferris, E. B.: Psychologic mechanisms in malignant hypertension. Psychosom. Med.13, 147–159 (1951)Google Scholar
  32. Scholander, T.: Habituation of autonomic response elements under two conditions of alterness. Acta physiol. scand.50, 259–268 (1960)Google Scholar
  33. Schwartz, G. E., Shapiro, D.: Biofeedback and essential hypertension: current findings and theoretical concerns. Sem. Psychiat.5, 493–503 (1973)Google Scholar
  34. Shmavonian, B. M.: Methodological study of vasomotor conditioning in human subjects. J. comp. physiol. Psychol.52, 315–321 (1959)Google Scholar
  35. Sutherland, C. J.: Cardiovascular participation in unconditioned and conditioned defence reactions. Ph. D. Thesis. University of Birmingham, England (1973)Google Scholar
  36. Sutherland, C. J., Zbrożyna, A. W.: The cardiovascular involvement in the early stages of conditioning of the flexor reflex in dogs. J. Physiol. (Lond.)218, 83–84P (1971)Google Scholar
  37. Sutherland, C. J., Zbrożyna, A. W.: Conditioned active muscle vasodilation and flexor reflex in dogs. In: Central-rhythmic and regulation (W. Umbach and H. P. Kopchen, eds.), pp. 381–386 Stuttgart: Hippocrates 1974aGoogle Scholar
  38. Sutherland, C. J., Zbrożyna, A. W.: Extinction of the vasodilator component of the defence reaction in the cat. Experientia (Basel)30, 49–50P (1974b)Google Scholar
  39. Trueta, J., Daniel, P., Franklin, K. J., Barclay, A. E., Pritchard, M. M. L.: Renal pathology in the light of recent neurovascular studies. Lancet1946, 237–238Google Scholar
  40. Wells, D. T.: Large magnitude voluntary heart rate changes. Psychophysiology10, 260–269 (1973)Google Scholar
  41. Zbrożyna, A. W.: Renal vasoconstriction in naturally elicited fear and its habituation in baboons. Cardiovasc. Res.10, 295–300 (1976)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jane Martin
    • 1
  • Colin J. Sutherland
    • 1
  • Andrzej W. Zbrożyna
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology, Medical SchoolUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK

Personalised recommendations