Archives of Dermatological Research

, Volume 258, Issue 1, pp 33–40 | Cite as

Ultrastructure of the contrasting types of keratinization seen in the tail epidermis of the laboratory mouseMus musculus

  • R. I. C. Spearman
  • J. A. Hardy
Article

Summary

The mouse tail epidermis undergoes contrasting forms of keratinization. Around the hair follicle there is a granular layer containing keratohyalin granules, and nuclei are absent from the horny layer. In the scale regions keratohyalin is not formed and nuclear remnants are retained in the horny cells as in parakeratosis generally. These findings from light microscopy were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The complete breakdown of organelles in the follicular regions contrasted with the retention of effete nuclei in the scales. Some of these nuclear remnants were pyknotic as in abnormal human parakeratosis, but most were further degraded with loss of nuclear membranes. In the boundary zone between the follicular and scale regions the epidermal cells had a few small keratohyalin granules and also showed incomplete degradation of nuclear remnants in the horny cells. The change from living epidermal cells to dead keratinized cells was abrupt in both the follicular and scale regions. In both sites the plasma membranes of the horny cells were thickened and there was a cytoplasmic meshwork of microfibrils in the cells.

Keywords

Epidermal Cell Scale Region Hair Follicle Nuclear Membrane Granular Layer 

Zusammenfassung

Die Verhornung der Epidermis im Mäuseschwanz verläuft in unterschiedlicher Weise. In der Umgebung der Haarfollikeln ist eine granuläre Schicht, die Keratohyalin-Körnchen enthält; die Zellkerne fehlen in der verhornten Schicht. In der Schuppenregion wird kein Keratohyalin gebildet, und Kernreste bleiben in den verhornten Zellen, wie allgemein in der Parakeratose. Die Befunde des Lichtmikroskops konnten durch Transmission-Elektronmikroskopie bestätigt werden. Der vollständige Zusammenbruch der Organelle in der Region der Follikeln stand in Gegensatz zu dem Weiterbestehen der alten Zellkerne in den Schuppen. Manche dieser Kernreste waren pyknotisch wie in anormaler Parakeratose des Menschen, aber die meisten waren mehr degeneriert und hatten die Kernmembranen verloren. Die Epidermiszellen in der Grenzzone zwischen der Follikel und Schuppenregion enthielten ein paar Keratohyalin-Körnchen, und der Verfall der Nuklearreste in den verhornten Zellen war unvollkommen. Der Übergang zwischen lebenden Epidermiszellen und toten verhornten Zellen war scharf abgegrenzt sowohl in der Follikel als in der Schuppenregion. Die Plasmamembrane der Hornzellen waren in beiden Lagen verdickt, und die Zellen enthielten ein cytoplasmisches Netzwerk von Mikrofibrillen.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Braun-Falco, O.: The histochemistry of psoriasis. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.73, 936–976 (1958)Google Scholar
  2. Breathnach, A. S.: An atlas of the ultrastructure of human skin. London: Churchill 1971Google Scholar
  3. Brody, I.: The keratinization of epidermal cells of normal guinea pig skin as revealed by electron microscpoy. J. Ultrastruct. Res.2, 482–511 (1959)Google Scholar
  4. Brody, I.: The ultrastructure of the tonofibrils in the keratinization process of normal human epidermis. J. Ultrastruct. Res.4, 264–297 (1960)Google Scholar
  5. Brody, I.: The ultrastructure of the horny layer in normal and psoriatic epidermis as revealed by electron microscopy. J. invest. Derm.39, 519–528 (1962)Google Scholar
  6. Fraser, R. D. B., MacRae, T. P., Rogers, G. E.: Keratins, their composition, structure and bio-synthesis. Illinois: C. C. Thomas 1972Google Scholar
  7. Grüneberg, H.: More about the tabby mouse and about the Lyon hypothesis. J. Embryol. exp. Morph.16, 569–590 (1966)Google Scholar
  8. Hardy, J. A., Spearman, R. I. C.: Interdigitated cells in the horny layer of the human heel. (In preparation)Google Scholar
  9. Jarrett, A.: Physiology and pathophysiology of the skin, Vol. 1. The epidermis. London-New York: Academic Press 1973Google Scholar
  10. Jarrett, A., Spearman, R. I. C.: Histochemistry of the skin. Psoriasis. London: English Univ. Press 1964Google Scholar
  11. Jarrett, A., Spearman, R. I. C., Hardy, J. A.: The histochemistry of keratinization. Brit. J. Derm.71, 277–295 (1959)Google Scholar
  12. Jarrett, A., Spearman, R. I. C., Riley, P. A., Cane, A. K.: The distribution of epidermal phospholipids and their relation to alkaline phosphatase activity of the granular layer. J. invest. Derm.44, 311–319 (1965)Google Scholar
  13. Mahmoud, B.: Unpublished observations (1976)Google Scholar
  14. Matoltsy, A. G.: Keratinization of the avian epidermis. An ultrastructural study of the new born chick skin. J. Ultrastruct. Res.29, 438–457 (1969)Google Scholar
  15. Matoltsy, A. G., Matoltsy, M. N.: The membrane protein of horny cells. J. invest. Derm.46, 127–129 (1966)Google Scholar
  16. Riley, P.A., Spearman, R. I. C.: Vitamin A induced synthesis of alkaline phosphatase. Science160, 1006–1007 (1968)Google Scholar
  17. Simms, R. T.: Emission stereoscan and transmission electron microscopic profiles of the stratum corneum. Brit. J. Derm.82, 377–384 (1970)Google Scholar
  18. Spearman, R. I. C.: The structure of epidermal keratin. J. Anat.94, 292 (1960a)Google Scholar
  19. Spearman, R. I. C.: The skin abnormality of ichthyosis, a mutant of the house mouse. J. Embryol. exp. Morph.8, 387–395 (1960b)Google Scholar
  20. Spearman, R. I. C.: Experimental studies of factors affecting epidermal growth and keratinization. Ph. D. Thesis. London University 1963Google Scholar
  21. Spearman, R. I. C.: The evolution of mammalian keratinized structures. pp. 67–81. In: The mammalian epidermis and its derivatives. F. J. G. Ebling, Ed. Symposium No. 12 of the Zoological Society of London. London-New York: Academic Press 1964Google Scholar
  22. Spearman, R. I. C.: The keratinization of epidermal scales, feathers and hairs. Biol. Rev.41, 59–96 (1966)Google Scholar
  23. Spearman, R. I. C.: Some light microscopical observations on the stratum corneum of the guinea pig, man and the common seal. Brit. J. Derm.83, 582–590 (1970)Google Scholar
  24. Spearman, R. I. C.: The epidermal stratum corneum of the whale. J. Anat.113, 373–381 (1972)Google Scholar
  25. Spearman, R. I. C.: The integument. A text book of skin biology. London: Cambridge Univ. Press 1973Google Scholar
  26. Spearman, R. I. C.: Alteration of keratinization in mouse ear epidermis in recombinant grafts with tail dermis. Acta anat.89, 195–202 (1974)Google Scholar
  27. Spearman, R. I. C.: Keratins and Keratinization. In: Comparative biology of skin. R. I. C. Spearman, Ed. Symposium No. 39 of the Zoological Society of London. London-New York: Academic Press 1977Google Scholar
  28. Spearman, R. I. C.: Histological and histochemical changes induced in mouse tail epidermis by daily applications of low concentrations of vitamin A acetate in a water miscible cream base. J. Soc. Cosmetic. Chem.Google Scholar
  29. Spearman, R. I. C., Garretts, M.: The effects of subcutaneous saline injections on growth and keratinization of mouse tail epidermis. J. invest. Derm.46, 245–250 (1966a)Google Scholar
  30. Spearman, R. I. C., Garretts, M.: The site of deposition and rate of clearance of saline after subcutaneous injection into the mouse tail. J. invest. Derm.46, 251–253 (1966b)Google Scholar
  31. Spearman, R. I. C., Hardy, J. A.: The action of solvents on the ultrastructural appearance of keratohyalin and the horny layer in guinea pig back epidermis. Brit. J. Derm.89, 263–276 (1973)Google Scholar
  32. Spearman, R. I. C., Hardy, J. A.: Some ultrastructural observations on keratohyalin granules of guinea pig epidermis. Arch. Derm. Forsch.250, 149–158 (1974)Google Scholar
  33. Spearman, R. I. C., Hardy, J. A.: Ultrastructural demonstration of cystine in guinea pig back stratum corneum. Arch. Derm. Forsch.251, 289–294 (1975a)Google Scholar
  34. Spearman, R. I. C., Hardy, J. A.: Plantar epidermis of the guinea pig and characteristics of the stratum corneum. Acta anat.91, 196–204 (1975b)Google Scholar
  35. Spearman, R. I. C., Hardy, J. A.: Some ultrastructural observations on human palmar stratum corneum. Acta anat.94, 476–480 (1976)Google Scholar
  36. Spearman, R. I. C., Hardy, J. A.: Ultrastructure of epidermal keratinization in the newly hatched and adult domestic fowl (in preparation)Google Scholar
  37. Spearman, R. I. C., Jarrett, A.: Biological comparison of isomers and chemical forms of vitamin A (retinol). Brit. J. Derm.90, 553–560 (1974)Google Scholar
  38. Spearman, R. I. C., Jarrett, A.: Bioassay of corticosteroids for topical application. Brit. J. Derm.92, 581–584 (1975)Google Scholar
  39. Spearman, R. I. C., Jarrett, A.: The mouse tail test for evaluation of topically applied corticosteroids. Int. J. Derm.15 (in print, 1976)Google Scholar
  40. Wrench, R.: Changes in mouse tail epidermal keratinization induced by tar derivatives. In: Comparative biology of skin. R. I. C. Spearman, Ed. Symposium No. 39 of the Zoological Society of London. London-New York: Academic Press 1977Google Scholar
  41. Wrench, R., Britten, A. Z.: Evaluation of coal tar fractions for use in psoriasiform diseases using the mouse tail test (1). High and low temperature tars and their constituents. Brit. J. Derm.92, 569–574 (1975a)Google Scholar
  42. Wrench, R., Britten, A. Z.: Evaluation of coal tar fractions for use in psoriasiform diseases using the mouse tail test (2). Tar oil acids. Brit. J. Derm.92, 575–579 (1975b)Google Scholar
  43. Wrench, R., Britten, A. Z.: Evaluation of coal tar fractions for use in psoriasiform diseases using the mouse tail test (3). High boiling tar acids. Brit. J. Derm.93, 67–73 (1975c)Google Scholar
  44. Wrench, R., Britten, A. Z.: Evaluation of dithranol and synthetic tar as antipsoriatic treatments using the mouse tail test. Brit. J. Derm.93, 75–78 (1975d)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. I. C. Spearman
    • 1
  • J. A. Hardy
    • 1
  1. 1.Dermatology DepartmentUniversity College Hospital Medical SchoolLondonGreat Britain

Personalised recommendations