Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 22, Issue 5, pp 301–305 | Cite as

Biodegradation of 4-chlorophenol by entrappedAlcaligenes sp. A 7-2

  • F. Westmeier
  • H. J. Rehm
Biotechnology

Summary

The degradation of 4-chlorophenol by free and by Ca-alginate-immobilized cells ofAlcaligenes sp. A 7-2 has been studied. Increasing concentrations of 4-chlorophenol (0.4–0.55 mM) were better tolerated and more quickly degraded by the immobilized organisms than by free cells. The capability for haloarene-degradation is inducible. In semicontinuous fermentation at pH 7 a minimal degradation time of 5 h for degrading 0.2 mM 4-chlorophenol was reached. Fermentation temperature was shown to be important for inducing the degradation capability, but to be less important for the degradation rate by induced organisms. High-frequency feeding of small amounts of 4-chlorophenol (0.05 mM) was more favourable than low-frequency feeding of larger amounts (0.15 mM).

Continuous fermentation with unbuffered medium allowed a degradation rate of about 2 mmol·l-1·d-1; with buffered medium a higher degradation rate of nearly 4 mmol·l-1·d-1 was reached, but the Ca-alginate beads dissolved.

Keywords

Fermentation Biodegradation Degradation Rate Free Cell Continuous Fermentation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bettmann H, Rehm HJ (1984) Degradation of phenol by polymer entrapped microorganisms. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 20:285–290Google Scholar
  2. Dorn E, Knackmuss HJ (1978a) Chemical structure and biodegradability of halogenated aromatic compounds. Two catechol 1,2-dioxygenases from a 3-chlorobenzoate-grown Pseudomonad. Biochemical Journal 174:73–84Google Scholar
  3. Dorn E, Knackmuss HJ (1978b) Chemical structure and biodegradability of halogenated aromatic compounds. Substituent effects on 1,2-dioxygenation of catechol. Biochemical Journal 174:85–94Google Scholar
  4. Ehrhardt H, Rehm HJ (1985) Phenol degradation by microorganisms adsorbed on activated carbon. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 21:32–36Google Scholar
  5. Klages U, Lingens F (1979) Degradation of 4-chlorobenzoic acid by a Nocardia species. FEMS Microbiology Letters 6:201–203Google Scholar
  6. Klein J (1982) Die ionotrope Gelbildung als universelle Methode zur Immobilisierung von ganzen Zellen. BMFT-Statusseminar JülichGoogle Scholar
  7. Knackmuss HJ (1979) Halogenierte und sulfonierte Aromaten-Eine Herausforderung für Aromaten abbauende Bakterien. Forum Mikrobiologie 6:311–317Google Scholar
  8. Knackmuss HJ, Hellwig M (1978) Utilization and Cooxidation of chlorinated phenols by Pseudomonas sp. B 13. Arch Microbiol 117:1–7Google Scholar
  9. Lal R, Saxena DM (1982) Accumulation, metabolism, and effects of organochlorine insecticides on microorganisms. Microbiological Reviews 46:95–127Google Scholar
  10. Li AYL, Digiano FA (1980) The availability of sorbed substrate for microbial degradation on granular activated carbon. Annual Water Pollution Control Federation Conference 53rd Las Vegas, Nevada, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  11. Martin RW (1949) Rapid colorimetric estimation of phenol. Anal Chem 21:1419Google Scholar
  12. Mattiasson B (1983) Immobilized Cells and Organelles Vol. I. CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  13. Motosugi K, Soda K (1983) Microbial degradation of synthetic organochlorine compounds. Experientia 39:1214–1220Google Scholar
  14. Pfennig N, Lippert KD (1966) Über das Vitamin B12-Bedürfnis phototropher Schwefelbakterien. Arch Mikrobiol 55:245–256Google Scholar
  15. Tanaka H, Matsumura M, Veliky IA (1984) Diffusion characteristics of substrates in Ca-alginate gel beads. Biotechnol Bioeng 26:53–58Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Westmeier
    • 1
  • H. J. Rehm
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für MikrobiologieUniversität MünsterMünsterGermany

Personalised recommendations