Biodegradation of 4-chlorophenol by entrappedAlcaligenes sp. A 7-2
The degradation of 4-chlorophenol by free and by Ca-alginate-immobilized cells ofAlcaligenes sp. A 7-2 has been studied. Increasing concentrations of 4-chlorophenol (0.4–0.55 mM) were better tolerated and more quickly degraded by the immobilized organisms than by free cells. The capability for haloarene-degradation is inducible. In semicontinuous fermentation at pH 7 a minimal degradation time of 5 h for degrading 0.2 mM 4-chlorophenol was reached. Fermentation temperature was shown to be important for inducing the degradation capability, but to be less important for the degradation rate by induced organisms. High-frequency feeding of small amounts of 4-chlorophenol (0.05 mM) was more favourable than low-frequency feeding of larger amounts (0.15 mM).
Continuous fermentation with unbuffered medium allowed a degradation rate of about 2 mmol·l-1·d-1; with buffered medium a higher degradation rate of nearly 4 mmol·l-1·d-1 was reached, but the Ca-alginate beads dissolved.
KeywordsFermentation Biodegradation Degradation Rate Free Cell Continuous Fermentation
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bettmann H, Rehm HJ (1984) Degradation of phenol by polymer entrapped microorganisms. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 20:285–290Google Scholar
- Dorn E, Knackmuss HJ (1978a) Chemical structure and biodegradability of halogenated aromatic compounds. Two catechol 1,2-dioxygenases from a 3-chlorobenzoate-grown Pseudomonad. Biochemical Journal 174:73–84Google Scholar
- Dorn E, Knackmuss HJ (1978b) Chemical structure and biodegradability of halogenated aromatic compounds. Substituent effects on 1,2-dioxygenation of catechol. Biochemical Journal 174:85–94Google Scholar
- Ehrhardt H, Rehm HJ (1985) Phenol degradation by microorganisms adsorbed on activated carbon. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 21:32–36Google Scholar
- Klages U, Lingens F (1979) Degradation of 4-chlorobenzoic acid by a Nocardia species. FEMS Microbiology Letters 6:201–203Google Scholar
- Klein J (1982) Die ionotrope Gelbildung als universelle Methode zur Immobilisierung von ganzen Zellen. BMFT-Statusseminar JülichGoogle Scholar
- Knackmuss HJ (1979) Halogenierte und sulfonierte Aromaten-Eine Herausforderung für Aromaten abbauende Bakterien. Forum Mikrobiologie 6:311–317Google Scholar
- Knackmuss HJ, Hellwig M (1978) Utilization and Cooxidation of chlorinated phenols by Pseudomonas sp. B 13. Arch Microbiol 117:1–7Google Scholar
- Lal R, Saxena DM (1982) Accumulation, metabolism, and effects of organochlorine insecticides on microorganisms. Microbiological Reviews 46:95–127Google Scholar
- Li AYL, Digiano FA (1980) The availability of sorbed substrate for microbial degradation on granular activated carbon. Annual Water Pollution Control Federation Conference 53rd Las Vegas, Nevada, pp 1–18Google Scholar
- Martin RW (1949) Rapid colorimetric estimation of phenol. Anal Chem 21:1419Google Scholar
- Mattiasson B (1983) Immobilized Cells and Organelles Vol. I. CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton, FloridaGoogle Scholar
- Motosugi K, Soda K (1983) Microbial degradation of synthetic organochlorine compounds. Experientia 39:1214–1220Google Scholar
- Pfennig N, Lippert KD (1966) Über das Vitamin B12-Bedürfnis phototropher Schwefelbakterien. Arch Mikrobiol 55:245–256Google Scholar
- Tanaka H, Matsumura M, Veliky IA (1984) Diffusion characteristics of substrates in Ca-alginate gel beads. Biotechnol Bioeng 26:53–58Google Scholar