Pflügers Archiv

, Volume 404, Issue 1, pp 73–79 | Cite as

Changes in the brain and core temperatures in relation to the various arousal states in rats in the light and dark periods of the day

  • F. ObálJr.
  • G. Rubicsek
  • P. Alföldi
  • G. Sáry
Heart, Circulation, Respiration and Blood; Environmental and Exercise Physiology

Abstract

In rats, brain temperature (Tbr) and core temperature (Tc) were recorded in parallel with the sleep-wake activity throughout the 24-h diurnal cycle, consisting of a 12-h light (L) and a 12-h dark (D) period. In order to characterize the temperature changes associated with the arousal states in the L and the D separately, (i) the average temperatures in wakefulness (W), non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) and REM sleep (REMS), and at the transitions between the arousal states were calculated; (ii) the courses of temperatures before and after the transitions (falling asleep, awakening from NREMS or REMS, transition from NREMS to REMS) were determined; (iii) the rates of changes inTbr andTc were calculated for each state; and (iv) the correlations between the temperatures and the overall length of each arousal state, and betweenTbr andTc were studied.

In both the L and D periods,Tbr andTc decreased at the beginning of NREMS, then levelled off, and increased slightly before awakening. Apart from short arousals which did not affect temperature,Tbr andTc increased in W, peaked 15–20 min after awakening, and declined significantly before the falling asleep. In REMS,Tbr increased at a high rate, while a slight increase inTc was evident in the L only. Correlations between the temperatures and the arousal states were found in both the L and the D. The courses ofTbr andTc were also correlated.

The results support the existence of characteristic changes in body temperature related to the arousal states in the rat.

Key words

Sleep Body temperature Thermoregulation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aschoff J (1970) Circadian rhythm of activity and of body temperature. In: Hardy JD, Gagge AP, Stolwijk JAJ (eds) Physiological and behavioral temperature regulation. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, pp 905–919Google Scholar
  2. Aschoff J, Pohl H (1970) Rhythmic variations in energy metabolism. Fed Proc 29:1541–1552Google Scholar
  3. Aschoff J, Von St Paul U (1973) Brain temperature as related to gross motor activity in the unanaesthetized chicken. Physiol Behav 10:529–533Google Scholar
  4. Aschoff J, Daan S, Honma K-I (1982) Zeitgebers, entrainment, and masking: some unsettled questions. In: Aschoff J, Daan S, Gross GA (eds) Vertebrate circadian systems. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 13–24Google Scholar
  5. Berger RJ (1975) Bioenergetic functions of sleep and activity rhythms and their possible relevance to aging. Fed Proc 34:97–102Google Scholar
  6. Borbély AA, Neuhaus HU (1978) Daily pattern of sleep, motor activity and feeding in the rat: effects of regular and gradually extended photoperiods. J Comp Physiol 124:1–14Google Scholar
  7. Czeisler CA, Zimmerman JC, Ronda JM, Moore-Ede MC, Weitzman ED (1980) Timing of REM sleep is coupled to the circadian rhythm of body temperature in man. Sleep 2:329–346Google Scholar
  8. DeCastro JM (1980) Core temperature relationships with spontaneous behavior in the rat. Physiol Behav 25:69–75Google Scholar
  9. Donhoffer SZ (1980) Homeothermia of the brain. Akademia Kiadó, Budapest, pp 17–56Google Scholar
  10. Eastman C, Rechtschaffen A (1983) Circadian temperature and wake rhythms of rats exposed to prolonged continuous illumination. Physiol Behav 31:417–427Google Scholar
  11. Geschickter EH, Andrews PA, Bullard RW (1966) Nocturnal body temperature regulation in man: a rationale for sweating in sleep. J Appl Physiol 21:623–630Google Scholar
  12. Gillberg M, Akerstedt T (1982) Body temperature and sleep at different times of day. Sleep 5:378–388Google Scholar
  13. Graf R (1980a) Diurnal changes of thermoregulatory functions in pigeons. I. Effector mechanisms. Pflügers Arch 386:173–179Google Scholar
  14. Graf R (1980b) Diurnal changes of thermoregulatory functions in pigeons. II. Spinal thermosensitivity. Pflügers Arch 386:181–185Google Scholar
  15. Graf R, Heller HC, Rautenberg W (1981) Thermoregulatory effector mechanism activity during sleep in pigeons. In: Szelényi Z, Székely M (eds) Contributions to thermal physiology. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 225–227Google Scholar
  16. Hammel HT, Jackson DC, Stolwijk JAJ, Hardy JD, Stromme SB (1963) Temperature regulation by hypothalamic proportional control with an adjustable set point. J Appl Physiol 18:1146–1154Google Scholar
  17. Hayward JN, Baker MA (1969) A comparative study of the role of the cerebral arterial blood in the regulation of brain temperature in five mammals. Brain Res 16:417–440Google Scholar
  18. Heller HC, Glotzbach SF (1977) Thermoregulation during sleep and hibernation. Int Rev Physiol 15:147–187Google Scholar
  19. Heller HC, Graf R, Rautenberg W (1983) Circadian and arousal state influences on thermoregulation in the pigeon. Am J Physiol 245:R321-R328Google Scholar
  20. Honma K-I, Hiroshige T (1978) Simulataneous determination of circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature in the rat. Jap J Physiol 28:159–169Google Scholar
  21. Kawamura H, Whitmoyer DI, Sawyer CH (1966) Temperature changes in the rabbit brain during paradoxical sleep. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 21:469–477Google Scholar
  22. Kovalzon VM (1973) Brain temperature variations during natural sleep and arousal in white rats. Physiol Behav 10:667–670Google Scholar
  23. Mills JN, Minors DS, Waterhouse JM (1978) The effect of sleep upon human circadian rhythms. Chronobiologia 5:14–27Google Scholar
  24. Obál F Jr (1984) Thermoregulation and sleep. Exp Brain Res (Suppl) 8:157–172Google Scholar
  25. Obál F Jr, Tobler I, Borbély AA (1983) Effect of ambient temperature on the 24-hour sleep-wake cycle in normal and capsaicin-treated rats. Physiol Behav 30:425–430Google Scholar
  26. Parmeggiani PL (1984) Autonomic nervous system in sleep. Exp Brain Res (Suppl) 8:39–49Google Scholar
  27. Parmeggiani PL (1977) Interaction between sleep and thermoregulation. Waking Sleeping 1:123–132Google Scholar
  28. Parmeggiani PL, Rabini C (1970) Sleep and environmental temperature. Arch Ital Biol 108:369–387Google Scholar
  29. Parmeggiani PL, Zamboni G, Perez E, Lenzi P (1984) Hypothalamic temperature during desynchronized sleep. Exp Brain Res 54:315–320Google Scholar
  30. Parmeggiani PL, Franzini C, Lenzi P, Zamboni G (1973) Threshold of respiratory responses to preoptic heating during sleep in freely moving cats. Brain Res 52:189–201Google Scholar
  31. Roussel B, Bittel J (1979) Thermogenesis and thermolysis during sleeping and waking in the rat. Pflügers Arch 382:225–231Google Scholar
  32. Stahel CD, Megirian D, Nicol SC (1984) Sleep and metabolic rate in the little penguin, Eudyptula minor. J Comp Physiol B 154:487–494Google Scholar
  33. Valatx JE, Roussel B, Curé M (1973) Sommeil et température cérébrale du rat au cours de l'exposition chronique en ambiance chaude. Brain Res 55:107–122Google Scholar
  34. Walker JM, Berger RJ (1980) Sleep as an adaptation for energy conservation functionally releated to hibernation and shallow torpor. Progress in Brain Research 53:255–278Google Scholar
  35. Wenger BC, Roberts MF, Stolwijk JAJ, Nadel ER (1976) Nocturnal lowering of thresholds for sweating and vasodilatation. J Appl Physiol 41:15–19Google Scholar
  36. Weitzman ED (1982) Chronobiology of man. Human Neurobiol 1:173–183Google Scholar
  37. Wever RA (1983) Organization of the human circadian system: internal interactions. In: Wehr TA, Goodwin FK (eds) Circadian rhythms in psychiatry. Boxwood, Pacific Groove, pp 17–32Google Scholar
  38. Zulley J, Wever R, Aschoff J (1981) The dependence of onset and duration of sleep on circadian rhythm of rectal temperature. Pflügers Arch 391:314–318Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. ObálJr.
    • 1
  • G. Rubicsek
    • 1
  • P. Alföldi
    • 1
  • G. Sáry
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyUniversity Medical SchoolSzegedHungary

Personalised recommendations