Influence of the endoderm on heart differentiation during the early stages of development of the chicken embryo

  • Francisco Orts-Llorca
Article

Summary

  1. 1.

    In stages +4, 5 and +5 in the chick embryo, the bilateral extirpation of the endoderm in the entire extension of the P.H.M. region detains heart differentiation, giving rise to acardiac embryos.

     
  2. 2.

    The unilateral extirpation of the endoderm in the entire extension of the P.H.M. region detains heart differentiation of the primordium of the side operated on, forming a typical beating heart from the heterolateral primordium.

     
  3. 3.

    If the extirpation of the endoderm is partial, a small beating vesicle is formed on the side operated on, which has the characters of the ventricle bulb or atrium, according to which region of the endoderm was extirpated.

     
  4. 4.

    It is not possible to demonstrate a difference between right side and left side extirpations of the endoderm.

     
  5. 5.

    The formation of the fore-gut is detained completely or unilateraly due to the absence of the morphogenetic movements of the endoderm in the extirpated region. Neither are the fore-gut fissures formed.

     
  6. 6.

    The embryos which form are abnormal in the encephalic extremity, observing platyneuria and vascular dilatations with great frequency.

     
  7. 7.

    In the stages in which these experiments have been carried out, the P.H.M. is not found to be determined as yet and still needs the influence or induction of the endoderm in order to initiate its differentiation.

     

Keywords

Developmental Biology Chick Embryo Great Frequency Chicken Embryo Beating Heart 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bacon, R.L.: Self-differentiation and induction in the heart of Amblystoma. J. exp. Zool.98, 87–125 (1945).Google Scholar
  2. Balinsky, B.I.: Experiments on total extirpation of the whole endoderm in Triton embryos. C. R. Acad. Sci. U.R.S.S.23, 196–198 (1939).Google Scholar
  3. Bellairs, R.: Studies on the Development of the Foregut in the Chick-Blastoderm. J. Embryol. exp. Morph.1, 115–124 (1953).Google Scholar
  4. —: Studies on the Development of the Eore-gut in The Chick Blastoderm 2, The Morphogenetic Movements. J. Embryol. exp. Morph.1, 369–385 (1953).Google Scholar
  5. Dalton, A.J.: The potencies of portions of young chick blastoderms as tested in chorio-allantoic grafts. J. exp. Zool.71, 17–52 (1935).Google Scholar
  6. Dossel, W.E.: Preparation of tungsten microneedles for use in embryological research. Lab. Invest.7, 171–173 (1958).Google Scholar
  7. Haan, R.L. De: Morphogenetic movements in cardiogenesis. A. R. Director Department Embryol. Carnegie Inst. Washington, 309–310 (1956/57).Google Scholar
  8. —: Morphogenetic movements in cardiogenesis. A. R. Director Department Embryol. Carnegie Inst. Washington1, 322–325 (1957/58).Google Scholar
  9. —: Cell migration and morphogenetic movements. The Chemical Basis of Development, edit. byWilliam D. McElroy andBently Class, p. 339–377. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press (1958).Google Scholar
  10. —: Cardia Bifida and Development of Pacemaker Function in the Early Chick Heart. Develop. Biol.1, 586–602 (1959).Google Scholar
  11. —: Development of the heart. A. R. Director Department Embryol. Carnegie Inst. Washington, 365–372 (1959/60).Google Scholar
  12. —: Morphogenetic movements of the precardiac mesoderm. A. R. Director Department Embryol. Carnegie Inst. Washington, 419–424 (1960/61).Google Scholar
  13. —: Regional Localization of Pre-Pacemaker Cells in the Chick Embryo. A. R. Director Department Embryol. Carnegie Inst. Washington, 397–404 (1961/62).Google Scholar
  14. —: Regional Localization of Pre-Pacemaker Cells in the Chick Embryo. A. R. Director Department Embryol. Carnegie Inst. Washington, 400–404 (1961–62).Google Scholar
  15. —: Regional organization of pre-pacemaker Cells in the Cardiac Primordia of the Early Chick Embryo. J. Embryol. exp. Morph.11, 65–76 (1963).Google Scholar
  16. Hamburger, V., andH.L. Hamilton: A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. J. Morph.88, 49–92 (1951).Google Scholar
  17. Jacobson, G.A.: Influences of Ectoderm and Endoderm of Heart differentiation in the Newt. Develop. Biol.2, 138–154 (1960).Google Scholar
  18. —: Heart Determination in the Newt. J. exp. Zool.146, 139–148 (1961).Google Scholar
  19. Mackay, C.J.: The “early lethal” action of the homozygons creeper factor in the chick. J. exp. Zool.88, 481–500 (1941).Google Scholar
  20. Mangold, O.: Entwicklung und Differenzierung der präsumptiven Epidermis und ihres unterlagernden Entomesoderms aus der Neurula von Triton alpestris als Isolat. Wilhelm Roux' Arch. Entwickl.-Mech. Org.147, 131–170 (1954).Google Scholar
  21. —: Experimente zur Analyse der Herzentwicklung bei Triton. Naturwissenschaften43, 287 (1956).Google Scholar
  22. New, D.A.T.: A new technique for the cultivation of the chick embryo, in vitro. J. Embryol. exp. Morph.3, 326–331 (1955).Google Scholar
  23. Nieuwkoop, D.: Experimental investigations on the origin and determination of the germ cells, and on the development of the lateral plates and germ ridges in urodeles. Arch, néerland Zool.8, 1–205 (1946).Google Scholar
  24. Orts-Llorca, F.: Influence de l'entoblaste dans la morphogénése et la différenciation tardive du cœur du poulet. Acta anat. (Basel)52, 202–214 (1963).Google Scholar
  25. Patten, B.M., andT.G. Kramer: The initiation of contraction in the embryonic chick heart. Amer. J. Anat.53, 349–375 (1933).Google Scholar
  26. Rawles, M.E.: The heart forming areas of the early chick blastoderm. Physiol. Zool.16, 22–45 (1943).Google Scholar
  27. Spratt, N.T.: Formation of the primitive streak in the explanted chick blastoderm marked with carbon particles. J. exp. Zool.103, 259–304 (1946).Google Scholar
  28. Waddington, C.H.: III. Experiments on the Development of Chick and Duck Embryos, cultivated in vitro. Phil. Trans. B221, 179–230 (1932).Google Scholar
  29. —: The Epigenetics of Birds. Cambridge: Cambridge University press (1962).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1963

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francisco Orts-Llorca
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anatomy, Medical SchoolUniversity of MadridSpain

Personalised recommendations