The nucleotide sequence of 3C proteinase region of the coxsackievirus A24 variant: Comparison of the isolates in Taiwan in 1985–1988
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Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis caused by coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v) first appeared in Taiwan in October 1985, followed by two other sequential epidemics in 1986 and 1988. In order to know the evolutionary relationship of the CA24v strains isolated in Taiwan, we first determined the nucleotide sequence of the 3C proteinase (3Cpro) region of the prototype strain (EH24/70), isolated in Singapore in 1970, by molecular cloning. The nucleotide sequence of the 3Cpro region thus sequenced showed striking homology with polioviruses and coxsackievirus A21.
Viral RNA of eight isolates obtained from the three epidemics was reverse transcribed, amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, and cloned into M13 phage for the production of ssDNA for nucleotide sequencing by the dideoxy chain termination method. When the number of nucleotide difference was taken as a genetic distance between isolates, all isolates showed a very similar distance from the EH24/70, the earliest isolate of CA24v, indicating that they evolved at a constant evolutionary rate. Phylogenetic analysis by the unweighted pairwise grouping method of arithmetic average (UPGMA) indicated that the six isolates collected in 1985 and 1986 were closely related, while two 1988 isolates were more distant from them. The branching time between these two groups was estimated to be May 1984, 18 months before the first recognition of the CA24v epidemic in Taiwan.
This is the first report of the nucleotide sequence of CA24v genome RNA and of an evolutionary analysis of the virus using the nucleotide sequence.
Key wordsCoxsackievirus A24 variant nucleotide sequence of CA24v evolution of CA24v enterovirus acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis
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