## Abstract

Five second-grade classes in two schools participated in a project that was generally compatible with a constructivist theory of knowing. At the end of the school year, the students in these classes and their peers in six non-project classes in the same schools were assigned to ten textbook-based third-grade classes on the basis of reading scores. The two groups of students were compared at the end of the third-grade year on a standardized achievement test and on instruments designed to assess their conceptual development in arithmetic, their personal goals in mathematics, and their beliefs about reasons for success in mathematics. The levels of computation performance on familiar textbook tasks were comparable, but former project students had attained more advanced levels of conceptual understanding. In addition, they held stronger beliefs about the importance of working hard and being interested in mathematics, and about understanding and collaborating. Further, they attributed less importance to conforming to the solution methods of others.

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Cobb, P., Wood, T., Yackel, E. *et al.* A follow-up assessment of a second-grade problem-centered mathematics project.
*Educ Stud Math* **23, **483–504 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00571469

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### Keywords

- Solution Method
- Conceptual Understanding
- Conceptual Development
- Computation Performance
- Personal Goal