Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 28, Issue 19, pp 5193–5198 | Cite as

Structure reorganization in montmorillonite gels during drying

  • A. C. Pierre
  • J. Zou
  • C. Barker


The structure evolution of montmorillonite gels, during drying by evaporation, has been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after hypercritical drying with liquid CO2. Fresh Fe3+1 electrolytes allow clay particles to aggregate to floes with a structure consistent with diffusion-limited aggregation. Compression under the capillary stresses, during evaporation, leads to gelation. During further drying by evaporation, the Fe bonding is strong and prevents the complete collapse of the gel into a parallel stacking of clay plates. On the contrary, such a collapse occurs more easily when fresh Fe electrolyte has not been added.


Polymer Microscopy Electron Microscopy Clay Scanning Electron Microscopy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    J. Zou andA. C. Pierre,J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 11 (1992) 664.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. A. Witten Jr. andP. Meakin,Phys. Rev. B 28 (1983) 5632.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Van Olphen andJ. J. Fripiat, “Data Handbook for Clay Minerals and other non-Metallic Minerals”, (Pergamon, Oxford, 1979).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. S. Michaels andJ. C. Bolger,I. & E. C. Fundamentals 1 (1962) 24.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Fricke,J. Non-Cryst. Solids 100 (1988) 169.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Zou andA. C. Pierre,J. Can. Cer. Soc. 60 (1991) 51.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. W. Ford,Drying, (MacLaren and Sons, London, 1964).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    W. D. Kingery andJ. Francl,J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 37 (1954) 596.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    I. L. Thomas andK. H. Maccorkle,J. Colloid Interface Sci. 36 (1971) 110.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. C. Pierre, “Introduction aux procédés sol-gel”, Ch. 4 (Septima, Paris 1991).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. J. Flory,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 63 (1941) 3083.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. V. Blackmore,Aus. J. Soil. Res. 11 (1973) 75.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. C. Pierre
    • 1
  • J. Zou
    • 1
  • C. Barker
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum EngineeringThe University of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations