Advertisement

Bulletin of Volcanology

, Volume 54, Issue 7, pp 535–541 | Cite as

Steady-state operation of Stromboli volcano, Italy: constraints on the feeding system

  • Grazia Giberti
  • Claude Jaupart
  • Giovanni Sartoris
Article

Abstract

Stromboli volcano has been in continuous eruption for several thousand years without major changes in the geometry and feeding system. The thermal structure of its upper part is therefore expected to be close to steady state. In order to mantaim explosive activity, magma must release both gas and heat. It is shown that the thermal and gas budgets of the volcano lead to consistent conclusions. The thermal budget of the volcano is studied by means of a finite-element numerical model under the assumption of conduction heat transfer. It is found that the heat loss through the walls of an eruption conduit is weakly sensitive to the dimensions of underlying magma reservoirs and depends mostly on the radius and length of the conduit. In steady state, this heat loss must be balanced by the cooling of magma which flows through the system. For the magma flux of about 1 kg s-1 corresponding to normal Strombolian activity, this requires that the conduits are a few meters wide and not deeper than a few hundred meters. This implies the existence of a magma chamber at shallow depth within the volcanic edifice. This conclusion is shown to be consistent with considerations on the thermal effects of degassing. In a Strombolian explosion, the mass ratio of gas to lava is very large, commonly exceeding two, which implies that the thermal evolution of the erupting mixture is dominated by that of the gas phase. The large energy loss due to decompression of the gas phase leads to decreased eruption temperatures. The fact that lava is molten upon eruption implies that the mixture does not rise from more than about 200 m depth. To sustain the magmatic and volcanic activity of Stromboli, a mass flux of magma of a few hundred kilograms per second must be supplied to the upper parts of the edifice. This represents either the rate of magma production from the mantle source feeding the volcano or the rate of magma overturn in the interior of a large chamber.

Keywords

Magma Chamber Mantle Source Feeding System Volcanic Edifice Conduction Heat Transfer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arnaud ON (1988) Stromboli: a morphological study. Kagoshima International Conference, JapanGoogle Scholar
  2. Blackburn EA, Wilson L, Sparks RSJ (1976) Mechanics and dynamics of Strombolian activity. J Geol Soc London 132:429–440Google Scholar
  3. Bottinga Y, Richet P (1981) High pressure and temperature equation of state and calculation of the thermodynamic properties of gaseous carbon dioxide. Am J Sci 281:615–660Google Scholar
  4. Bruce PM, Huppert HE (1989) Thermal control of basaltic fissure eruptions. Nature 342:665–667Google Scholar
  5. Bruce PM, Huppert HE (1990) Solidification and melting along dykes by the laminar flow of basaltic magma. In: Ryan MP (ed) Magma transport and storage. Wiley & Sons, New York, pp 87–101Google Scholar
  6. Capaldi G, Guerra I, Lo Bascio A, Luongo G, Pece R, Rapolla A, Scarpa R, Del Pezzo E, Martini M, Ghiara MR, Lirer L, Munno R, La Volpe L (1978) Stromboli and its 1975 eruption. Bull Volcanol 41:259–285Google Scholar
  7. Carrigan CR (1983) A heat pipe model for vertical magma filled conduits. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 16:279–289Google Scholar
  8. Chouet B, Hamisevicz N, McGetchin TR (1974) Photoballistic of volcanic jet activity at Stromboli Italy. J Geophys Res 79:4961–4976Google Scholar
  9. Condomines M, Allègre CJ (1980) Age and magmatic evolution of Stromboli volcano from230Th-238U disequilibrium data. Nature 288:354–357Google Scholar
  10. Druitt TH, Mellors RA, Pyle DM, Sparks RSJ (1989) Explosive volcanism on Santorini Greece. Geol Mag 126:95–126Google Scholar
  11. Francalanci L, Manetti P, Peccerillo A (1989) Volcanological and magmatological evolution of Stromboli volcano (Aeolian Islands): the roles of fractional crystallization magma mixing, crustal contamination and source heterogeneity. Bull Volcanol 51:355–378Google Scholar
  12. Gerlach TM, Graeber E (1985) Volatile budget of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. Nature 313:273–277Google Scholar
  13. Gillot PY (1984) Datation par la méthode du potassium argon des roches volcaniques récentes (pléistocènes et holocènes). Contribution à l'étude chronostratigraphique et magmatique des provinces volcaniques de Campanie des Iles Eoliennes de Pantelleria (Italie du Sud) et de la Réunion (Océan Indien). PhD Thesis, Paris, 225 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Haar L, Gallagher JS, Kell GS (1984) NBS/NRC Steam Tables Hemisphere Pub Co, 320 ppGoogle Scholar
  15. Hutchinson I, Von Herzen R, Louden K, Sclater J, Jemsek J (1985) Heat flow in the Balearic and Tyrrhennian basins, Western Mediterranean. J Geophys Res 90:685–701Google Scholar
  16. Jaupart C, Vergniolle S (1988) Laboratory models of Hawaiian and Strombolian activity. Nature 300:427–429Google Scholar
  17. Jaupart C, Vergniolle S (1989) The generation and collapse of a foam layer at the roof of a basaltic magma chamber. J Fluid Mech 203:347–380Google Scholar
  18. McGetchin TR, Chouet BA (1979) Energy budget of volcano Stromboli, Italy. Geophys Res Lett 6:317–320Google Scholar
  19. Newman S, Epstein S, Stolper E (1988) Water carbon dioxide hydrogen isotopes in glasses from the ca. 1304Ad eruption of Mono Craters, California. Earth Planet Sci Lett 35:75–96Google Scholar
  20. Ntepe N, Dorel J (1990) Observations of seismic volcanic signals at Stromboli volcano (Italy). J Volcanol Geotherm Res 43:235–251Google Scholar
  21. Ripepe M, Rossi M, Saccorotti G, Napoleone G (1990) Dynamics of the explosive activity at Stromboli. Int Volcanological Congress IAVCEI Mainz, FRG, 1990Google Scholar
  22. Rutherford MJ, Sigurdsson H, Carey S, Davis A (1985) The May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St Helens, 1. Melt composition and experimental phase equilibria. J Geophs Res 90:2929–2947Google Scholar
  23. Settle M, McGetchin TR (1980) Statistical analysis of persistent explosive activity at Stromboli 1971: implications for eruption prediction. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 8:45–58Google Scholar
  24. Stolper E, Holloway JR (1988) Experimental determination of the solubility of carbon dioxide in molten basalt at low pressure. Earth Planet Sci Lett 87:397–408Google Scholar
  25. Swanson DA (1972) Magma supply rate at Kilauea volcano 1952–1971. Science 175:169–170Google Scholar
  26. Wadge G (1982) Steady state volcanism: evidence from eruption histories of polygenetic volcanoes. J Geophys Res 87:4035–4049Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Grazia Giberti
    • 1
  • Claude Jaupart
    • 2
    • 3
  • Giovanni Sartoris
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell'Università di NapoliNapoliItaly
  2. 2.Université de Paris 7Paris Cedex 05France
  3. 3.Institut de Physique du Globe de ParisParis Cedex 05France
  4. 4.Observatoires VolcanologiquesInstitut de Physique du Globe de ParisParis Cedex 05France

Personalised recommendations