Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 714–726 | Cite as

Problems in optoelectronic semiconductors

  • A. M. White
Review

Abstract

Some of the current problems of optoelectronic semiconductors are reviewed by selecting compounds which typify materials at different stages of development. Even relatively well established materials present obstacles to a proper understanding of material growth. Their solution will aid the progress of more complex compounds. Most of the understood properties of the materials are covered in this review via references to representative publications in the literature.

Keywords

Polymer Current Problem Complex Compound Proper Understanding Material Growth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    T. S. Moss, G. J. Burrell andB. Ellis, “Semiconductor Optoelectronics” (Butterworth, London, 1972).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. A. Bergh andP. J. Dean, “Light Emitting Diodes” (Clarendon, Oxford, in press).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Idem, Proc. IEEE 60 (1972) 156.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Onton,Festkörperprobleme 13 (1973) 59.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Idem, J. Lum. 7 (1973) 95Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. J. Dean, “Progress in Solid State Chemistry”, Vol. 8 (Pergamon, Oxford, 1973) p. 1.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. C. Phillips, “Bonds and Bands in Semiconductors” (Academic Press, New York, 1973).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. Parthe, “Crystal Chemistry of Tetrahedral Structures”, (Gordon and Breach, New York, 1964).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. W. G. Wyckoff, “Crystal Structures”, Vol. 1 (Wiley, New York, 1963).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    E. Mooser andW. B. Pearson,Acta Cryst. 12 (1959) 1015.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. Worthington,J. Mater. Sci. 8 (1973) 1194.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. Braunstein, A. R. Moore andF. Herman,Phys. Rev. 109 (1958) 695. The bracket notation indicates alloying.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    H. Nelson,R.C.A. Rev. 24 (1963) 603.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. R. Goodwin, J. Gordon andC. D. Dobson,Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 2 (1968) 115.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. R. Knight, D. Effer andP. R. Evans,Solid State Electron. 8 (1965) 178.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. J. Tietjen andJ. A. Amick,J. Electrochem. Soc. 113 (1966) 724.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. E. Enstrom andC. C. Peterson,Trans. Met. Soc. AIME 239 (1967) 413.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Craford, “Progress in Solid State Chemistry”, Vol. 8 (Pergamon, Oxford, 1973) 127.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. M. White, P. J. Dean, D. J. Ashen, J. B. Mullin, M. Webb andB. Day,J. Phys. C6 (1973) L243.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. Gremmelmaier,Z. Naturforsch. 11a (1956) 511.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. B. Mullin, B. W. Strauchen andW. S. Brickell,J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26 (1965) 782.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. W. Bridgeman,Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 60 (1925) 305.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. Brooks,Adv. Electronics Electron Phys. 7 (1955) 158.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. M. White, P. J. Dean, L. L. Taylor, R. C. Clarke, D. J. Ashen andJ. B. Mullin,J. Phys. C5 (1972) 1727, references and discussion.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. M. White, P. J. Dean, K. M. Fairhurst, W. Bardsley, E. W. Williams andB. Day,Solid State Commun. 11 (1972) p109Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    R. D. Burnham, N. Holonyak Jun, D. L. Kuene andD. R. Scrifres,Appl. Phys. Letters 18 (1971) 160.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. M. White, P. J. Dean, B. D. Joyce, R. C. Clarke andL. L. Taylor, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Physics of Semiconductors 1972 (PWN, Warsaw, 1972) p. 190.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    C. M. Wolfe, D. M. Korn andG. E. Stillman,Appl. Phys. Letters 24 (1974) 78.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    R. A. Stradling, L. Eaves, R. A. Hoult, N. Miura, P. E. Simmonds andC. C. Bradley, Proceedings of the IVth International Symposium on GaAs, Boulder, Colorado, 1972 (Inst. Phys., Bristol, 1973) p. 65.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    C. T. Sah, L. Forbes, L. L. Rosier andA. F. Tasch Jun,Solid State Electr. 13 (1970) 759.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    C. H. Henry, H. Kukimoto andG. L. Milner,Phys. Rev. B7 (1973) 2499.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    D. V. Lang,J. Appl. Phys. 45 (1974) 3014, 3023.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    R. A. Logan, P. J. Dean, H. G. White andW. Wiegmann,ibid 42 (1971) 2328.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    A. Onton andL. M. Foster,ibid 43 (1972) 5084.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    J. I. Pankove, H. Nelson, J. J. Tietjen, I. J. Hegyi andH. P. Maruska,R.C.A. Rev. 28 (1967) 560.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    C. J. Nuese, J. J. Tietjen andJ. J. Gannon,J. Electrochem. Soc. 116 (1969) 248.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    A. H. Herzog, W. D. Groves andM. G. Craford,J. Appl. Phys. 40 (1969) 1830Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    M. G. Craford, R. W. Shaw, A. H. Herzog andW. O. Groves,ibid 43 (1972) 4075.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    R. J. Archer,J. Electr. Mater. 1 (1972) 128.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Idem, Spring Meeting of the Electrochemical Society (1970).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    H. Kressel,J. Quantum Electronics 8 (1972) 632.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    H. C. Casey Jun andM. B. Panish,J. Appl. Phys. 40 (1969) 4910.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    K. J. Linden,ibid 40 (1969) 2325.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    M. Ettenberg andR. J. Paff,ibid 41 (1970) 3926.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    F. K. Reinhart andR. A. Logan,ibid 44 (1973) 3171.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    G. A. Rozgonyi andM. B. Panish,Appl. Phys. Letters 23 (1973) 533.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    G. J. Nuese, D. Richman andR. B. Clough,Met. Trans. 2 (1971) 789.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Y. Okuna, K. Suto andJ. Nishizawa,Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 10 (1971) 388.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    H. Itoh, K. Hara, A. Tanaka andT. Sukegawa,Appl. Phys. Letters 19 (1971) 348.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    A. Laugier andJ. Chevallier,Phys. Stat. Sol. 7 (1971) 427.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    A. Onton, M. R. Lorenz andW. Reuter,J. Appl. Phys. 42 (1971) 3420.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    M. B. Panish andM. Ilegems, “International Symposium on GaAs, Aachen 1970” (Inst. Phys., Bristol, 1971) p. 67.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    B. W. Hakki,J. Electrochem. Soc. 118 (1971) 1469.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    H. M. Macksey, N. Holonyak Jun, R. D. Dupuis, J. C. Campbell andG. W. Zack,J. Appl. Phys. 44 (1973) 1333.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    I. Kudman andR. J. Paff,ibid 43 (1972) 3760.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    G. B. Stringfellow,ibid 43 (1972) 3455.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    R. Z. Bachrach andB. W. Hakki,ibid 42 (1972) 5102.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    C. Alibert, C. T. Bordure, A. Laugier andJ. Chevallier,Phys. Rev. B6 (1972) 1301.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    A. W. Mabbitt,J. Mater. Sci. 5 (1970) 1043.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    D. R. Scifres, H. M. Macksey, N. Holonyak Jun andR. D. Dupuis,J. Appl. Phys. 43 (1972) 1019.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    D. R. Scifres, H. M. Macksey, N. Holonyak Jun, R. D. Dupuis, G. W. Zack, C. B. Duke, G. G. Kleiman andA. B. Kunz,Phys. Rev. B6 (1972) 2206.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    G. D. Pitt,Solid State Commun. 14 (1974) 621.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    R. M. Potter, J. H. Blank andA. Addamiano,J. Appl. Phys. 40 (1969) 2253.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    H. K. Henisch andR. Roy (Eds.), “Silicon Carbide 1968” (Pergamon, London, 1969).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    G. F. Kholuyanov,Sov. Phys. Solid State 7 (1966) 2620.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    H. L. Dunlap andO. J. Marsh,Appl. Phys. Letters 15 (1969) 311.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    P. J. Dean andR. L. Hartmann,Phys. Rev. B5 (1971) 4911.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    G. Mandel,ibid 134A (1964) 1973.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    R. S. Title, G. Mandel andF. F. Morehead,ibid 136A (1964) 300.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    G. Mandel, R. S. Title andF. F. Morehead,ibid 136A (1964) 826.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    F. F. Morehead andG. Mandel,ibid 140A (1965) 924.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    H. J. Vink,Festkörperprobleme 4 (1965) 205.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    W. Albers, “Physics and Chemistry of II–VI Compounds”, edited by M. Aven and J. S. Prener (Wiley, New York, 1967) p. 165.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    C. H. Henry, K. Nassau andJ. W. Shiever,Phys. Rev. B4 (1971) 2453.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    F. Chernow, G. Eldridge, G. Ruse andL. W. Ahlin,Appl. Phys. Letters 12 (1968) 339.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    B. Tell andW. M. Gibson,J. Appl. Phys. 40 (1969) 5320.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    W. W. Anderson andR. M. Swanson,ibid 42 (1971) 5125.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    B. Tell, W. M. Gibson andJ. W. Rogers,Appl. Phys. Letters 17 (1970) 315.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Y. S. Park, H. F. Lockwood andF. Z. Hawrylo,ibid 18 (1971) 45, 99.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    J. Dielman,ibid 19 (1971) 84.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    J. Marine andH. Rodot,ibid 17 (1970) 352.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    J. W. Allen, M. D. Ryall andE. M. Wray,Phys. Stat. Sol. 17a (1973) K101.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    K. Turvey andJ. W. Allen,J. Phys. C6 (1973) 2887.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    A. W. Livingstone andJ. W. Allen,ibid C6 (1973) 3491.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    J. L. Merz, K. Nassau andJ. W. Shiever,Phys. Rev. B8 (1973) 1444.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    A. Vecht,J. Lum. 7 (1973) 213.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    A. G. Fischer, “Proceedings of the International Conference on Luminescence”, Vol. 12 (Akademiai Kiada, Budapest, 1968) p. 1765.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    A. Suzuki andS. Shionoya,J. Phys. Soc. Japan 31 (1971) 1455, 1462, 1719.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    H. P. Maruska andJ. J. Tietjen,Appl. Phys. Letters 15 (1969) 327.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    R. B. Zetterstrom,J. Mater. Sci. 5 (1970) 1102.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    H. J. Hovel andJ. J. Cuomo,Appl. Phys. Letters 20 (1972) 71.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    M. Ilegems,J. Crystal Growth 13/14 (1972) 360.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    J. I. Pankove, H. P. Maruska andJ. E. Berkeyheiser,Appl. Phys. Letters 17 (1970) 197.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    D. L. Camphausen andG. A. N. Conell,J. Appl. Phys. 42 (1971) 4438.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    J. I. Pankove andP. E. Norris,R.C.A. Rev. 33 (1972) 377.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    H. P. Maruska, D. A. Stevenson andJ. I. Pankove,Appl. Phys. Letters 22 (1973) 303.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    J. I. Pankove,J. Lum. 7 (1973) 114.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    A. Shileika,Surface Sci. 37 (1973) 730.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    G. C. Bhar andR. C. Smith,Phys. Stat. Sol. 13A (1972) 157.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    J. L. Shay, B. Tell andH. M. Kasper,Appl. Phys. Letters 19 (1971) 366.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    B. Tell, J. L. Shay andH. M. Kasper,J. Appl. Phys. 43 (1972) 2469.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    G. D. Boyd, E. Buehler, F. G. Storz andJ. H. Wernick,J. Quantum Electronics 8 (1972) 419.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    A. Mercier, E. Mooser andJ. P. Voitchovsky,J. Lum. 7 (1973) 241.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    D. Jones andA. H. Lettington,Solid State Commun. 7 (1969) 1319.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall Ltd. 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. M. White
    • 1
  1. 1.Royal Radar EstablishmentGreat MalvernUK

Personalised recommendations