Shear strength of lunar soil from oceanus procellarum
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Soil from the scoop of Surveyor 3, returned to Earth by Apollo 12 astronauts, has been tested in a miniature shear box at five bulk densities, from 0.99 to 1.87 g cm−3. Cohesion increased with bulk density from 3 × 10−2 to 3 × 10−1 N cm−2; internal friction angle increased from 13° to 56°. Shear stress vs normal stress data fit a logarithmic relationship better than a linear one, at normal stresses of 3 × 10−3 to 3 x 100 N cm−2. Results of these tests, in air, show no systematic differences from those for tests made elsewhere in vacuum and nitrogen. Results agree with those obtained in remotely controlled lunar surface operations with Surveyor 3 and other spacecraft provided that the bulk density was slightly underestimated for the on-surface measurements.
KeywordsNitrogen Shear Stress Shear Strength Bulk Density Normal Stress
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