European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

, Volume 37, Issue 6, pp 541–544 | Cite as

Vitamin E and cardiovascular disease

  • J. Kleijnen
  • P. Knipschild
  • G. ter Riet
Special Article


Randomized clinical trials of the effects of Vitamin E on complaints of intermittent claudication and angina pectoris are reviewed, and their methodological shortcomings are considered. Mechanisms by which Vitamin E might act in cardiovascular disease are discussed. The evidence about the possible pharmacological actions of Vitamin E supports the need for randomized clinical trials. It is concluded that Vitamin E may have a positive effect, especially in intermittent claudication.

Key words

Vitamin E angina pectoris intermittent claudication 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Kleijnen
    • 1
  • P. Knipschild
    • 1
  • G. ter Riet
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology/Health Care ResearchUniversity of LimburgMaastrichtThe Netherlands

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