Marketing Letters

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 63–75 | Cite as

Computer-aided content analysis: What do 240 advertising slogans have in common?

  • Grahame R. Dowling
  • Boris Kabanoff


This paper uses the technique of computer-aided text analysis to evaluate the meanings of 240 advertising slogans. Content analysis performed by a computer is more reliable and less tedious than that performed by human coders. We analyze the content of the slogans and assume this reflects what the advertiser thinks that he or she said. One large group of equivocal slogans and four other more distinct groups are found.

Key words

computer-aided content analysis advertising slogans 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Boush, David. (1993). “How Advertising Slogans Can Prime Evaluations of Brand Extensions.”Psychology and Marketing 10 (January–February), 67–78.Google Scholar
  2. Callcott, Margaret F., and Wei-Na, Lee, (1994). “A Content Analysis of Animation and Animated Spokes-Characters in Television Commercials.”Journal of Advertising 23 (December), 1–12.Google Scholar
  3. Choffray, Jean-Marie, and Gary L. Lilien. (1980).Market Planning for New Industrial Products (New York: Wiley).Google Scholar
  4. Cohen, William A. (1991).The Practice of Marketing Management, New York: Maxwell Macmillan.Google Scholar
  5. Dowling, Grahame R. (1994).Corporate Reputations: Strategies for Developing the Corporate Brand. Melbourne: Longman Cheshire.Google Scholar
  6. Dowling, Grahame R., and David F. Midgley. (1988). “Identifying the Coarse and Fine Structure of Market Segments.”Decision Sciences 19(4), 830–847.Google Scholar
  7. Dunphy, D.C., C.G. Bullard, and E.M. Crossing. (1989). “Validation of the General Inquirer Harvard IV Dictionary.” In C. Zull, P.W. Weber and P.P. Mohler (eds.),Computer-Aided Text Classification for the Social Sciences: The General Inquirer III (pp. 140–197). Mannheim: ZUMA, The Centre for Surveys, Research and Methodology.Google Scholar
  8. Erdener, Carolyn, and Craig P. Dunn. (1990). “Content Analysis.” In A.S. Huff (ed.),Mapping Strategic Thought. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  9. Glennon, Randal. (1993). “Slogans: May the Farce Be with You.”Ad News, July 2, 19.Google Scholar
  10. Kabanoff, Boris (1993). “Computers Can Read as Well as Count: How Computer-Aided Text Analysis Can Benefit Organizational Research.” In C.L. Cooper and D.M. Rousseau (eds.),Trends in Organizational Behavior (vol. 3). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  11. Kassarjian, Harold H. (1977). “Content Analysis in Consumer Research.”Journal of Consumer Research, 4(1), 8–18.Google Scholar
  12. Katz, Michael, and Jon, Rose. (1969). “Is Your Slogan Identifiable?”Journal of Advertising Research 9(1), 21–26.Google Scholar
  13. Kolbe, Richard H., and Melissa S. Burnett. (1991). “Content-Analysis Research: An Examination of Applications with Directives for Improving Research Reliability and Objectivity.”Journal of Consumer Research 18(2), 243–250.Google Scholar
  14. Larson, Carl M., and Hugh G. Wales. (1970). “Slogan Awareness in the Chicago Market.”Journal of Advertising Ressarch 10 (December), 38–41.Google Scholar
  15. Lasswell, Harold D., and A. Kaplan. (1950).Power and Society: A Framework for Political Analysis. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Namenwirth, J. Zvi, and Robert P. Weber. (1987).The Dynamics of Culture. Boston: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  17. Osgood, Charles E., George J. Suci, and Percy H. Tannenbaum. (1957).The Measurement of Meaning. Champaign: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  18. Punj, Girish, and David W. Stewart (1983). “Cluster Analysis in Marketing Research: Review and Suggestions for Application.”Journal of Marketing Research 20(2), 134–148.Google Scholar
  19. Reece, Bonnie B. (1984). “Children's Ability to Identify Retail Stores from Advertising Slogans” In Thomas, C. Kinnear (ed.),Advances in Consumer Research (vol. 11), (pp. 320–323). Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research.Google Scholar
  20. Reece, Bonnie B., Bruce G.Vanden Bergh, and Hairong, Li. (1994). “What Makes a Slogan Memorable and Who Remembers It.”Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising 16(2), 41–55.Google Scholar
  21. Rosenberg, Stanley D., Paula P. Schnurr, and Thomas E. Oxman. (1990). “Content Analysis: A Comparison of Manual and Computerized Systems.”Journal of Personality Assessment 1 & 2, 298–340.Google Scholar
  22. Stewart, David W. (1981). “The Application and Misapplication of Factor Analysis in Market Research.”Journal of Marketing Research 18(1), 51–62.Google Scholar
  23. Stone, Phillip J., Dexter C. Dunphy, marshall S. Smith, and Daniel M. Ogilvie. (1966)The General Inquirer: A Computer Approach to Content Analysis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  24. Tse, David K., Russell W. Belk, and Nan, Zhou. (1989). “Content Analysis of Print Ads from Hong Kong, the People's Republic of China, and Taiwan.”Journal of Consumer Research 15(4), 457–472.Google Scholar
  25. Weber, Robert p. (1985).Basic Content Analysis. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  26. Wolfe, Richard. (1991). “The Use of Content Analysis to Assess Corporate Responsibility,”Research in Corporate Social Performance and Policy, 12, 281–307.Google Scholar
  27. Zull, Cornelia, Robert P. Weber, and Philip P. Mohler. (1989).The General Inquirer III. Mannheim: ZUMA, The Center for Surveys, Research and Methodology.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Grahame R. Dowling
    • 1
  • Boris Kabanoff
    • 2
  1. 1.Australian Graduate School of ManagementUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Australian Graduate School of ManagementUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations