Sources of hydrochlorofluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons and fluorocarbons and their potential emissions during the next twenty five years
- 77 Downloads
In common with CFCs, the classes of compounds in the title have wholly anthropogenic sources. CFCs are used for refrigeration, air-conditioning, foam blowing, solvent cleaning and propelling aerosols and, in each case, equipment has been designed to make the most efficient use of the properties of individual compounds. There is little scope for substitution, even between CFCs. The potential for replacement of these historic uses by substitute technologies - ammonia, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and HCFCs, HFCs and FCs -is examined. It is shown that the quantities required are influenced as much by improvements to containment as they are by the primary demands from society.
Based on analysis of the historic data; the declared manufacturing capacities, and the anticipated effects of international controls, the potential production and emissions of the principal HCFCs and HFCs are calculated for the next twenty five years. While consumption of HCFCs will fall nearly to zero, it would appear that demand for HFC-134a could double, from approximately 150,000 to 300,000 tonnes/year between 1995 and 2020. Over the same timescale demand for HFC-32 could rise to 90,000 tonnes/year. The potential future emissions of other HCFCs, HFCs and FCs which are expected to be used less widely, or for which there is no current consumption base from which to make meaningful extrapolations, are also discussed.
KeywordsFoam Hydrocarbon Refrigeration Anthropogenic Source Potential Production
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- AFEAS (Alternative Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study) (1993), Production, Sales and Atmospheric Release of Fluorocarbons through 1992, AFEAS, 1333 H Street NW, Washington DC 20005Google Scholar
- C&EN: 1993, Perfluorocarbons Use, Emissions May Face Restriction, Chemical & Engineering News, 71, 32, 16.Google Scholar
- ECN: 1993, Carving up the HFC Market, European Chemical News Process Review, October 1993, pp. 13–14.Google Scholar
- Fischer S.K., P.J. Hughes, P.D. Fairchild, C.L. Kusik, J.T. Dieckmann, F.M. McMahon and N. Hobday: 1991, Energy and Global Warming Impacts of CFC Alternative Technologies, AFEAS and United States Department of Energy, Washington DC.Google Scholar
- GECR: 1993, Not-in-Kind ODS Alternatives: How Big a Rôle Will They Play?, Global Environmental Change Report, V (12, 1–3.Google Scholar
- IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (1992) Emissions Scenarios for the IPCC: an Update, Ch A3 of Climate Change 1992, the Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment, ed J.T. Houghton, B.A. Callander and S.K. Varney, University Press, Cambridge UK.Google Scholar
- Luker B.G.: 1961, The Gompertz curve in market forecasting, British Plastics, March 1961, 108–111.Google Scholar
- McCarthy R.: 1993, CFC Alternatives: an Overview, Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on the Global Business Outlook for CFC Alternatives, Cambridge MA, 15–16 June 1993, Intertech Corporation, Portland ME.Google Scholar
- McCulloch A.: 1992, Testimony to the Enquete-Kommission of the Deutscher-Bundestag, “Schutz des Menschen und der Umwelt”, 3–4 Dec 1992, Kommission-drucksache 12/6d. See also Drucksache 12/5812, 30 Sep 93.Google Scholar
- McCulloch A.: 1993, Future Consumption and Emissions of Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) Alternatives to CFCs: Comparison of Estimates using Top-down and Bottom-up Approaches submitted to Environment International.Google Scholar
- Midgley P.M.: 1989, The Production and Release to the Atmosphere of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (methyl chloroform), Atmospheric Environment 23, (12, 2663–2665.Google Scholar
- Shapiro M.M.: 1993, Substitution assumptions, background papers to Workshop on Other Greenhouse Gases -HFC and PFC emissions, United States Environmental Protection Agency, 12 July 1993.Google Scholar
- UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) (1992) Amendments and Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, UNEP, Nairobi, document ref. UNEP/OzL.Pro.4/2/Rev.2.Google Scholar
- Verhille M.: 1992, Testimony to the Enquete-Kommission of the Deutscher-Bundestag, “Schutz des Menschen und der Umwelt”, 3–4 Dec 1992, Kommission-drucksache 12/6f. see also Drucksache 12/5812, 30 Sep 93.Google Scholar