Advertisement

Virchows Archiv A

, Volume 350, Issue 3, pp 183–204 | Cite as

Degeneration of arterial smooth muscle cells: Ultrastructural study of smooth muscle cell death in control and cholesterol-fed animals

  • H. Imai
  • S. K. Lee
  • S. J. Pastori
  • W. A. Thomas
Article

Summary

Bifurcations of common carotid arteries of rhesus monkeys and trifurcations of terminal abdominal aortas of Yorkshire swine were examined by electron microscopy for dead and dying smooth muscle cells (SMC). Ultrastructural criteria are proposed for classifying SMC in arterial walls as dead or dying based on in vitro data reported by others. We were not able to make clear distinction between the dead and dying SMC and the term “generative forms” is used to include both. Degenerative forms were classified into two categories: rarefied and mummified. The frequency of apparent dead and dying SMC averaged 1.9% in carotid bifurcations of control monkeys. Four months of cholesterol feeding elevated the frequency to 4.2%. The frequency of degenerative forms in aortic trifurcations of control swine averaged 1.2%, and 3 days' cholesterol feeding elevated the value to 3.2%. Thus one of the early effects of oral administration of cholesterol appears to be injury to arterial SMC resulting in aggravation of cell death. Functional damage to the cell membranes is viewed as the most likely primary event that induces the sequence of morphologic changes associated with cell death.

Keywords

Cholesterol Smooth Muscle Cell Rhesus Monkey Arterial Wall Abdominal Aorta 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bessis, M.: Studies on cell agony and death: an attempt at classification. In: Ciba Foundation Symposium. Cellular injury (eds. A. V. S. De Reuck and J. Knight), p. 287–316. Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 1964.Google Scholar
  2. Biggers, J. D.: The death of cells in normal multicellular organisms. In: Ciba Foundation Symposium. Cellular injury (eds. A. V. S. De Reuck and J. Knight), p. 329–349. Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 1964.Google Scholar
  3. Buck, R. C.: Histogenesis and morphology of arterial tissue. In: Atherosclerosis and its origin (eds. M. Sandler and G. H. Bourne), p. 1–38. New York: Academic Press 1963.Google Scholar
  4. Dixon, K. C.: Events in dying cells. Proc. roy. Soc. Med. 60, 271–275 (1967).Google Scholar
  5. Florentin, R. A., Nam, S. C., Lee, K. T., Lee, K. J., Thomas, W. A.: Increased mitotic activity in aortas of swine after 3 days of cholesterol feeding. Arch. Path. 88, 463–469 (1969).Google Scholar
  6. French, J. E., Jennings, M. A., Florey, H. W.: Morphological studies of atherosclerosis in swine. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 127, 780–799 (1965).Google Scholar
  7. Geer, J. C.: Fine structure of human aortic intimal thickening and fatty streaks. Lab. Invest. 14, 1764–1783 (1965).Google Scholar
  8. Ghidoni, J. J., O'Neal, R. M.: Recent advances in molecular pathology: A review. Ultrastructure of human atheroma. Exp. molec. Path. 7, 378–400 (1967).Google Scholar
  9. Glücksmann, A.: Cell deaths in normal vertebrate ontogeny. Biol. Rev. 26, 59–86 (1951).Google Scholar
  10. Holmberg, B.: On the permeability to Lissamine green and other dyes in the course of cell injury and cell death. Exp. Cell Res. 22, 406–414 (1961).Google Scholar
  11. Hughes, A. F. W.: The histogenesis of the arteries of the chick embryo. J. Anat. (Lond.) 77, 266–287 (1943).Google Scholar
  12. Imai, H., Lee, K. J., Lee, S. K., Lee, K. T., O'Neal, R. M., Thomas, W. A.: Ultrastructural features of aortic cells in mitosis in control and cholesterol-fed swine. Lab. Invest. (accepted for publication, 1970).Google Scholar
  13. Imai, H., Lee, K. T., Pastori, S., Panlilio, E., Florentin, R., Thomas, W. A.: Atherosclerosis in rabbits. Architecture and subcellular alterations of smooth muscle cells of aorta in response to hyperlipemia. Exp. molec. Path. 5, 273–310 (1966).Google Scholar
  14. -- Pastori, S. J.: Electron microscopy study of cerebral arterial changes in cholesterol-fed Rh. monkeys. Fed. Proc. 27, 575A (1968).Google Scholar
  15. —— Thomas, W. A.: Cerebral atherosclerosis in swine: role of necrosis in progression of dietinduced lesions from proliferative to atheromatous stage. Exp. molec. Path. 8, 330–357 (1968).Google Scholar
  16. Judah, J. D., Ahmed, K.: Role of phosphoproteins in ion transport: interactions of sodium with calcium and potassium in liver slices. Biochem. biophys. Acta (Amst.) 71, 34–44 (1963).Google Scholar
  17. —— —— McLean, A. E. M.: Possible role of ion shifts in liver injury. In: Ciba Foundation Symposium. Cellular injury (eds. A. V. S. De Reuck and J. Knight), p. 187–205. Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 1964.Google Scholar
  18. Kanno, Y., Loewenstein, W. R.: A study of the nucleus and cell membranes of oocytes with an intra-cellular electrode. Exp. Cell Res. 31, 149–166 (1963).Google Scholar
  19. Langhans, Th.: Beiträge zur normalen und pathologischen Anatomie der Arterien. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 36, 187–226 (1866).Google Scholar
  20. Lee, K. T., Lee, K. J., Lee, S. K., Imai, H., O'Neal, R. M.: Poorly differentiated subendothelial cells in swine aortas. Exp. molec. Path. (accepted for publication, 1970).Google Scholar
  21. Loewenstein, W. R., Kanno, Y.: The electrical conductance and potential across the membranes of some cell nuclei. J. Cell Biol. 16, 421–425 (1963).Google Scholar
  22. McMillan, G. C., Stary, H. C.: Preliminary experience with mitotic activity of cellular elements in the atherosclerotic plaques of cholesterol-fed rabbits studied by labeling with tritiated thymidine. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 149, 699–709 (1968).Google Scholar
  23. Mitchison, J. M.: Some functions of the nucleus. Int. Rev. Cytol. 19, 97–110 (1966).Google Scholar
  24. Pease, D. C., Molinari, S.: Electron microscopy of muscular arteries. Pial vessels of the cat and monkey. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 3, 447–468 (1959–60).Google Scholar
  25. Rhodin, J. A. G.: Fine structure of vascular walls in mammals with special reference to smooth muscle component. Physiol. Rev. 42, Suppl. 5, 48–81 (1962).Google Scholar
  26. Shanes, A. M.: Electrochemical aspects of physiological and pharmacological action in excitable cells. Part I. The resting cell and its alteration by extrinsic factors. Pharmacol. Rev. 10, 59–104 (1958).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1970

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Imai
    • 1
  • S. K. Lee
    • 1
  • S. J. Pastori
    • 1
  • W. A. Thomas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyAlbany Medical CollegeAlbany

Personalised recommendations