Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 26, Issue 16, pp 4411–4415 | Cite as

Fabrication of fine-grain piezoelectric ceramics using reactive calcination

  • S. Kim
  • G. S. Lee
  • T. R. Shrout
  • S. Venkataramani
Papers

Abstract

Fine-grain piezoelectric ceramics with the formula Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3(PZT) were prepared by a reactive calcination process. Using conventional materials and processing techniques, highly reactive powders of PZT were achieved by calcining to or near the point of maximum volume expansion, whereby associated morphological changes resulted in highly reactive powder. Upon milling, powders <0.3 μm were readily obtained allowing densification at temperatures <1000°C. The B-site precursor method, whereby the ZrO2 and TiO2 oxides were pre-reacted prior to reaction with PbO, further enhanced reactivity by eliminating intermediate reactions and subsequent phase(s) which can hinder densification and overall homogeneity. Highly dense piezoceramics with grain sizes ∼1 to 2 μm exhibiting dielectric and piezoelectric characteristics comparable to conventionally prepared large grain size materials were obtained.

Keywords

Grain Size TiO2 Milling Calcination Morphological Change 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    B. Jaffe, W. R. Cook, Jr. and H. Jaffe, “Piezoelectric Ceramics” (Academic Press, New York, 1971).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. C. Buchanan, “Ceramic Materials for Electronics” (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1986) p. 154.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. M. Levinson, “Electronic Ceramics Properties, Devices, Applications” (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1987). p. 371.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Shiosaki, Ferroelectrics 91 (1989) 39.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. Uchino, Ceram. Bull. 65 (1986) 4.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    W. Wersing, H. Walth and M. Schnoller, Ferroelectricsx 87 (1988) 271.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    W. A. Smith, A. A. Shavlov and B. A. Auld, ibid. 91 (1989) 155.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    L. M. Brown and K. S. Mazdiyasni, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 55 (1932) 541.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. B. Blum and S. R. Gurkovich, J. Mater. Sci. 20 (1985) 4479.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Suzuki, S. Uedaira, H. Masuya and H. Tamura, “Ceramic Powder Science” IIA edited by G. Messing, E. Fuller, Jr. and H. Hausner (American Ceramic Society, Westerville, OH, 1988) p. 163.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. H. Adair, T. R. Shrout and K. Osseo-Asare, Proceedings International Meeting on Advanced Materials, MRS, Tokyo 3 (1989) p. 141.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. C. Beal, “Advances in Ceramics, Vol. 21: Ceramic Powder Science” (American Ceramic Society, Westerville, OH, 1987) p. 33.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Tashiro, N. Saski, Y. Tsuji, H. Igarashi and K. Okazaki, Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 26 (1987) 142.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. Venkataramani, Ph.D. thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 1981.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. L. Swartz and T. R. Shrout, Mater. Res. Bull. 17 (1982) 1245.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    I. R. E. Standards on Piezoelectric Crystals: Measurements of Piezoelectric Ceramics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1961).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    O. Okazaki and K. Nagata, “Mechanical Behavior of Materials” (Society of Materials Science, Kyoto, Japan, 1972) p. 404.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    K. Okazaki and K. Nagata, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 56 (1973) 82.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    X. L. Zhang, X. Chen, L. E. Cross and W. A. Schulze, J. Mater Sci. 18 (1983) 968.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    T. R. Shrout, U. Kumar, M. Megherhi, N. Yang and S. J. Jang, Ferroelectrics 76 (1989) 479.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Kim
    • 1
  • G. S. Lee
    • 1
  • T. R. Shrout
    • 1
  • S. Venkataramani
    • 2
  1. 1.Materials Research LaboratoryPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.General Electric Co.SchenectadyUSA

Personalised recommendations