Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 103, Issue 2, pp 193–202 | Cite as

Physiological evaluation of naphthalene intoxication in the tropical acrid clam Anadara granosa

  • B. Patel
  • J. T. Eapen
Article

Abstract

Changes in vital physiological activities — shell movements and burrowing behaviour, uptake and depuration, filtration and respiration — on exposure to sublethal concentrations of naphthalene (Nap) were investigated in the tropical arcid blood clam Anadara granosa L. from the Bombay coast in 1986. On exposure to ambient concentrations exceeding 5μg Nap ml-1, shell valves opened widely within the first hour of exposure. The compressed muscular foot was stretched vertically upwards with copious secretion of mucus, and did not exhibit any evidence of burrowing behaviour. Those exposed to 5μg Nap ml-1 regained their normal physiological activities on transfer to stressor-free medium, whereas those exposed to higher levels became intoxicated and narcotized. Bioaccumulation of Nap was dependent upon environmental concentration, increasing exponentially with time over a 9h exposure period. Further exposure, up to 96h, however, did not increase tissue levels substantially. About 65% of the total body burden of Nap was depurated within 3h of transfer to Nap-free medium. Rates of filtration and oxygen consumption were significantly reduced (ca 70%, p<0.001) compared to control clams. Percent inhibition in these physiological activities was dependent upon tissue and ambient concentrations of Nap. On transfer to pollutant-free medium, clams exhibited remarkable recovery. Rates of both filtration and oxygen consumption were gradually increased and restored to normal levels, as observed in controls. However, clams exposed to upper limits lost their ability to burrow back into the sedimentary bed, leaving them susceptable to predators. Furthermore, induction of anaerobiosis and disruption of osmotic balance on exposure to Nap together with aerial exposure at low-water periods and salinity changes, acted synergistically and proved detrimental. The rates of growth and mortality observed in the natural population of blood clams, harvested from the coastal waters off Bombay, have been explained in terms of the impact of petroleum and allied waste products released from petrochemical industries.

Keywords

Naphthalene Bioaccumulation Physiological Activity Ambient Concentration Sublethal Concentration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Abel, P. D. (1976). Effects of some pollutants on the filtration of Mytilus. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 7: 228–231Google Scholar
  2. Alijarinskaya, I. O. (1966). Behaviour and filtering ability of the Black sea mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis in oil polluted water. Zooch. Zh. 45: 998–1003Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, J. W., Neff, J. M., Cox, B. A., Tatem, H. E., Hightower, G. M. (1974). Characteristics of dispersions and water-soluble extracts of crude and refined oils and their toxicity to estuarine crustaceans and fish. Mar. Biol. 27: 55–88Google Scholar
  4. Avolizi, R. J., Nuwayhid, M. (1974). Effects of crude oil and dispersants on bivalves. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 5: 149–153Google Scholar
  5. Barnes, H. (1959). Apparatus and methods of Oceanography, Part I. Chemical. George Allen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Bochm, P. D., Quinn, J. G. (1976). The effect of dissolved organic matter in sea water on the uptake of mixed individual hydrocarbons and No. 2 fuel oil by a marine filter-feeding bivalve (Mercenaria mercenaria). Estuar. cstl. mar. Sci. 4: 93–105Google Scholar
  7. Boylan, D. B., Tripp, B. W. (1971). Determination of hydrocarbons in sea water extracts of crude oil and crude oil fractions. Nature, Lond. 230: 44–47Google Scholar
  8. Cantelmo, A., Mantel, L., Lazell, R., Hospod, F., Flynn, F., Goldberg, S., Katz, M. (1982). The effects of benzene and dimethylnaphthalene on physiological processes in juveniles of blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. In: Vernberg, W. B., Calabrese, A., Thurberg, F. P., Vernberg, F. J. (eds.) Physiological mechanisms of marine pollutant toxicity. Academic Press, New York, p. 349–389Google Scholar
  9. Crider, J. Y., Whim, H., Harmon, H. J. (1982). Effects of naphthalene on the hemoglobin concentration and oxygen uptake of Daphnia magna. Bull. environ. Contam. Toxic. 28: 52–57Google Scholar
  10. De Salvo, L. H., Guard, H. E., Hunter, L. (1975). Tissue hydrocarbons burden of mussels as potential monitor of environmental insult. Envir. Sci. Technol. 9: 247–251Google Scholar
  11. Donkin, P., Widdows, J. (1986). Scope for growth as a measurement of pollution and its interpretation using structure-activity relationships. Chem. Ind. 21: 732–737Google Scholar
  12. Dunning, A., Major, C. W. (1974). The effect of cold sea water extracts of oil fractions upon the blue mussle, Mytilus edulis. In: Vernberg, F. J., Vernberg, W. B. (eds.) Pollution and physiology of marine organisms. Academic Press, New York, p. 349–366Google Scholar
  13. Geyer, H., Sheehan, P., Kotzjas, D., Freitag, D., Korte, F. (1982). Prediction of ecotoxicological behaviour of chemicals: relationship between physicochemical properties and bioaccumulation of organic chemicals in the mussel Mytilus edulis. Chemosphere (U.K.) 11: 1131–1134Google Scholar
  14. Gilfillan, E. S. (1973). Effect of sea water extracts of crude oil on carbon budget in two species of mussels. In: Proc. Conf. Prev. Control Oil Pollut. 1973: 691–695Google Scholar
  15. Gilfillan, E. S. (1975). Decrease of net carbon flux in two species of mussels caused extracts of crude oil. Mar. Biol. 29: 53–57Google Scholar
  16. Hansen, N., Jensen, V. B., Appeluist, H., Morch, E. (1978). The uptake and release of petroleum hydrocarbons by the marine mussei Mytilus edulis. Prog. Wat. Technol. 10: 351–359Google Scholar
  17. Hargreaves, B. R., Smith, R. L., Thompson, C. Q., Herman, S. S. (1982). Toxicity and accumulation of naphthalene in the mysid Neomysis americana (Smith) and effects of environmental temperature. In: Vernberg, W. B., Calabrese, A., Thurberg, F. P., Vernberg, F. J. (eds.) Physiological mechanisms of marine toxicity. Academic Press, New York, p. 391–412Google Scholar
  18. Jacobson, S. M., Boylan, D. B. (1973). Effect of seawater soluble fraction of kerosene on chemotaxis in marine snail, Nassarius obsoletus. Nature, Lond. 241: 213–215Google Scholar
  19. Johnson, J. G. (1977). Sublethal biological effects of petroleum hydrocarbon exposures: bacteria, algae and invertebrates. In: Malins, D. C. (ed.) Effects of petroleum on arctic and subarctic marine environments and organisms. Vol. 10. Biological effects. Academic Press, New York, p. 271–318Google Scholar
  20. Keck, R. T., Heesse, R. C., Wehmiller, J., Maurer, D. (1978). Sublethal effects of the water soluble fraction of Nigerian crude oil on the juvenile hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria (Linne). Environ. Pollut. 15: 109–119Google Scholar
  21. Kittredge, J. S., Takahashi, F. T., Sarinana, S. O. (1974). Bioassays indicative of some sublethal effects of oil pollution. In: Proc. Mar. Technol. Soc., Washington, D.C., p. 891–897Google Scholar
  22. Lee, R. F., Sauerheber, R., Benson, A. A. (1972). Petroleum hydrocarbons: uptake and discharge by a marine mussel Mytilus edulis. Science, New York 177: 344–346Google Scholar
  23. Lund, E. J. (1957). Effect of bleedwater, soluble fraction and crude oil on the oyster. Publs. Inst. mar. Sci., Univ. Tex. 4: 328–341Google Scholar
  24. Mantoura, R. F. C., Dickson, A., Riley, J. P. (1978). The complexation of metals with humic materials in natural waters. Estuar. cstl mar. Sci. 6: 387–408Google Scholar
  25. McAuliffe, C. (1966). Solubility in water of paraffin, cycloparaffin, acetylene, cyclo-olefin and aromatic hydrocarbons. J. phys. Chem. Wash, 70: 1267–1275Google Scholar
  26. McLeese, D. W., Burridge, L. E. (1986). Comparative accumulation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from water and sediment by four marine invertebrates. In: Park, K. (eds.) Waste in the Oceans. Vol. 10. Monitoring strategies for waste disposal. Wiley-Interscience, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  27. Neff, J. M. (1979). Polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the aquatic environment-sources, fates and biological effects. Applied Science Publ, London, p. 1–262Google Scholar
  28. Neff, J. M. (1982) Accumulation and release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water, food and sediment by marine animals. In: Richards, N. L., Jackson, B. L. (eds.) Symp. Carcinogenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the marine environment. Publs. US envirol Prot. Ag. EPA-600/9-82-103Google Scholar
  29. Neff, J. M., Anderson, J. W. (1981). Responses of marine animals to petroleum hydrocarbons. Applied Science Publ, LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. Neff, J. M., Cox, B. A., Anderson, J. W. (1976). Accumulation and release of petroleum derived aromatic hydrocarbons by four species of marine animals. Mar. Biol. 19: 279–289Google Scholar
  31. Nelson-Smith, A. (1972). Oil pollution and marine ecology. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. O'Ch Eocha, C. (1976). The changing biochemistry of the sea. Technol., Ireland 8: 18–21Google Scholar
  33. Patel, B., Bangera, V. S., Patel, S., Balani, M. C. (1985). Heavy metals in the Bombay harbour area. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 16: 22–28Google Scholar
  34. Patel, B., Chandy, J. P., Patel, S. (1988). Do Selenium and glutathione (GSH) inhibit/detoxify impact of mercury in marine lamellibranchs. Sci. total. Environ. 76: 147–165Google Scholar
  35. Rice, S. D., Short, J. W., Karinen, J. F. (1977). Comparative oil toxicity and comparative animal sensitivity. In: Wolfe, A. D. (ed.) Fate and effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine ecosystems and organisms. Pergamon Press, New York, p. 78–94Google Scholar
  36. Riley, R. T., Mix, M. C., Schaffer, R. L., Bunting, D. L. (1981). Uptake and accumulation of naphthalene by oyster Ostrea edulis in a flow-through system. Mar. Biol. 61: 267–276Google Scholar
  37. Roesijadi, G., Woodruff, D. L., Anderson, J. W. (1978). Bioavailability of naphthalene from marine sediment artificially contaminated with Purdoe Bay crude oil. Environ. Pollut. 15: 223–229Google Scholar
  38. Southworth, G. R. (1979). The role of volatilization in removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aquatic environments. Bull. environ. Contam. Toxic. 21: 507–514Google Scholar
  39. Stainken, D. M. (1978). Effects of uptake and discharge of petroleum hydrocarbons on the respiration of the soft-shell clam Myaarenaria. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 35: 637–642Google Scholar
  40. Stegeman, J. J., Teal, J. M. (1973). Accumulation, release and retention of petroleum hydrocarbon by oyster Crassostrea virginica. Mar. Biol. 22: 37–44Google Scholar
  41. Stone, W. L. (1975). Hydrophobic interaction of alkanes with liposomes and proteins. J. biol. Chem. 250: 4368–4370Google Scholar
  42. Swedmark, M., Gramo, A., Kolberg, S. (1973). Effects of oil dispersants and oil emulsions on marine animals. Water Res. 7: 1649–1672Google Scholar
  43. Taylor, T. L., Karinen, J. F. (1977). Response of the clam Macoma balthica (Linne) exposed to Prudhoe Bay crude oil as unmixed oil, water soluble fraction and sediment adsorbed fraction in the laboratory. In: Wolfe, D. A. (ed.) Fate and effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine ecosystems and organisms. Pergamon Press, Oxford, p. 229–237Google Scholar
  44. Widdows, J., Moore, S. L., Clarke, K. R., Donkin, P. (1983). Uptake tissue distribution and elimination of (1-C-14) naphthalene in the mussel Mytilus edulis. Mar. Biol. 76: 109–114Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Patel
    • 1
  • J. T. Eapen
    • 1
  1. 1.Health Physics DivisionBhabha Atomic Research CentreBombayIndia

Personalised recommendations