Previous workers (McKenzie and Parsons, 1972, 1974; McKenzie, 1974; Briscoe et al., 1975) have found anomalous distributions of species of Drosophila, of sexes of D. melanogaster, and of Adh alleles in and around wineries in Australia and Spain. Field studies in California's Sonoma Valley provide evidence that the explanations advanced for these distributions may incorrect. The anomalous distribution of species was attributed to alcohol, either as a selective agent or as a behavioral stimulus. We find a virtually identical species distribution in the absence of environmental alcohol. The anomalous sex ratio was attributedd to differential survivall of the sexes when raised on alcohol. We present crude evidence thatehe difference may simply be a behavioral response to some product of fermentation, which need not be alcohol. Finally, the allele frequency difference reported from Spain was attributed to differential adult mortality on alcohol. We do not find an allele frequency difference even when alcohol is exposed, and therefore suggest that selection is occurring in pre-adult stages.
KeywordsAlcohol Fermentation Allele Frequency Field Study Behavioral Response
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