Advertisement

Science & Education

, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 1–56 | Cite as

Notes on the cultural significance of the sciences

  • W. A. Suchting
Article

Abstract

‘Cultural’ in the title is intended to allude to the bearing of the sciences on humanity's general orientation in the world. Questions about this are distinguished from ones about the sciences' instrumental aspect, as means to ends extrinsic to them qua sciences, and also from ones about their intrinsic character, except to the extent that these bear on the central topic of the paper. It is argued that the sciences, ethical/moral reflection and the arts are distinct but inseparable. The sciences may be regarded as ‘first among equals’ substantively, insofar they are a privileged source of a certain specially important sort of factual knowledge, and, methodologically, insofar as they provide a particularly clear model for understanding a purely naturalistic approach to the world.

...Ulrich...loved mathematics because of the people who could not endure it. He was not so much scientifically as humanly in love with science...many people for whom mathematics or natural science is a job feel it is almost an outrage if someone goes in for science for reasons like [his]. ...[He]...hated...all those who give up half-way, the faint-hearted, the soft, those who comfort their souls with flummery about the soul and who feed it, because the intellect allegedly gives it stones instead of bread, on religious, philosophical and fictitious emotions, which are like buns soaked in milk. ...soul is...easily defined negatively: it is simply what curls up and hides when there is any mention of an algebraic series.

Robert Musil, The Man Without Qualities, Bk. I, Chs. 11, 13, 25.

Keywords

Natural Science Central Topic General Orientation Factual Knowledge Naturalistic Approach 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ackermann, R. J.: 1985, Data, Instruments and Theory. A Dialectical Approach to Understanding Science, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  2. Adorno, T.: 1973, Philosophische Terminologie, Bd 1, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/M.Google Scholar
  3. Adorno, T.: 1986, Mahler. Eine musikalische Physiognomik, in Die musikalischen Monographien, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/M..Google Scholar
  4. Agassi, J.: 1964, ‘The Nature of Scientific Problems and their Roots in Philosophy’, in M. Bunge (ed.), The Critical Approach to Science and Philosophy, Free Press, Glencoe, 189–211.Google Scholar
  5. Althusser, L.: 1969, For Marx, Allen Lane, The Penguin Press, London.Google Scholar
  6. Althusser, L.: 1971, Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays, New Left Books, London.Google Scholar
  7. Althusser, L.: 1976, Essays in Self-Criticism, NLB, London.Google Scholar
  8. Althusser, L.: 1990, Philosophy and the Spontaneous Philosophy of the Scientists, Verso, London and New York.Google Scholar
  9. Althusser, L. and Balibar, E.: 1970, Reading Capital, New Left Books, London.Google Scholar
  10. Appleyard, B.: 1992, Understanding the Present. Science and the Soul of Modern Man, Picador, London.Google Scholar
  11. Armstrong, D. M.: 1968, A Materialist Theory of the Mind, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  12. Aronowitz, S.: 1988, Science and Power. Discourse and Ideology in Modern Society, University of Minneapolis Press, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  13. Bachelard, G: 1986, The New Scientific Spirit, Beacon Press, Boston.Google Scholar
  14. Bachelard, G.: 1938, La Formation de l'esprit scientifique, Vrin, Paris.Google Scholar
  15. Bachelard, G.: 1949, Le Rationalisme appliqué, P. U. F., Paris.Google Scholar
  16. Bachelard, G.: 1951, L'Activité rationaliste de la physique contemporaine, P. U. F., Paris.Google Scholar
  17. Bachelard, G.: 1953, Le Matérialisme rationnel, P. U. F., Paris.Google Scholar
  18. Bachelard, G.: 1969, The Poetics of Space, Boston, Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  19. Bakhtin, M. M.: 1981, The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays, University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  20. Bakhtin, M. M.: 1984, Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  21. Bakhtin, M. M.: 1986, Speech Genres and Other Late Essays, University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  22. Balibar, E.: 1978, ‘From Bachelard to Althusser: the Concept of “Epistemological Break”’, Economy and Society 7, 207–237.Google Scholar
  23. Balser, W., Molines, C. U., Sneed, J. D.: 1987, An Architectonic for Science, D. Reidel, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  24. Baltas, A.: 1987, ‘Ideological “Assumptions” in Physics: Social Determinations of Internal Structures’, in A. Fine and P. Machamer (eds.) ‘Philosophy of Science Association 1986, Philosophy of Science Association, East Lansing, Michigan.Google Scholar
  25. Baltas, A.: 1988, ‘On the Structure of Physics as a Science’, in D. Batens and J. P. van Bendegam (eds.), Theory and Experiment, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 207–225.Google Scholar
  26. Baltas, A.: Forthcoming, ‘Physics as a Mode of Production’, Science in Context.Google Scholar
  27. Bloch, E.: 1986, Principle of Hope, 3 vols, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  28. Blumenberg, H.: 1983, The Legitimacy of the Modern Age, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..Google Scholar
  29. Blumenberg, H.: 1985, Work on Myth, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..Google Scholar
  30. Blumenberg, H.: 1987, Das Lachen der Thakerin. Eine Urgeschichte der Theorie, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/M..Google Scholar
  31. Böhme, G. (ed.): 1976, Protophysik. Für und wider eine konstruktive Wissenschaftstheorie der Physik, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/M..Google Scholar
  32. Böhme, G., van den Daele, W. and Krohn, W.: 1977, Experimentelle Philosophie. Ursprünge autonomer Wissenschaftsentwicklung, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/M..Google Scholar
  33. Bourdieu, P.: 1977, Outline of a Theory of Practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  34. Bramly, S.: 1991, Leonardo. Discovering the Life of Leonardo da Vinci, Edward Burlingame Books, New York.Google Scholar
  35. Brecht, B.: 1974, On Theatre. The Development of an Aesthetic (ed. and tr. J. Willett), Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  36. Bremmer, J. and Roodenburg, H. (eds.): 1992, A Cultural History of Gesture: From Antiquity to the Present, Polity Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  37. Bridgman, P. G.: 1927, The Logic of Modern Physics, Longmans, New York.Google Scholar
  38. Bridgman, P. G.: 1937, The Nature of Physical Theory, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  39. Bridgman, P. G.: 1952, The Nature of Some of Our Physical Concepts, Philosophical Library, New York.Google Scholar
  40. Brinton, C.: 1959, A History of Western Morals, Harcourt Brace, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Bronowski, J.: 1954, William Blake 1727–1827. A Man Without a Mask (2nd ed.), Pelican.Google Scholar
  42. Butts, R. E. and Brown, J. (eds.): 1989, Construction and Science. Essays in Recent German Philosophy, Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/Lancaster.Google Scholar
  43. Canguilhem, G.: 1970, ‘Galilée: La Signification de l'oeuvre et la leçon de l'homme’ in Etudes d'Histoire et de philosophie des sciences (2nd ed.), Vrin, Paris, 37–50.Google Scholar
  44. Carnap, R.: 1922, Der Raum. Ein Beitrag zur Wissenschaftslehre, Kant-Studien, Ergänzungshefte 56, Verlag von Reuther & Reichard, Berlin.Google Scholar
  45. Carnap, R.: 1926, Physikalische Begriffsbildung, G. Braun, Karlsruhe.Google Scholar
  46. Carnap, R.: 1967, The Logical Construction of the World, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  47. Cartwright, N.: 1983, How the Laws of Physics Lie, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  48. Cartwright, N.: 1989, Nature's Capacities and their Measurement, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  49. Cassirer, E.: 1922, Das Erkenntnisproblem in der Philosophie und Wissenschaft der neueren Zeit, Vols I and II (3rd ed.), B. Cassirer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  50. Cassirer, E.: 1953, Substance and Function and Einstein's Theory of Relativity, Dover, New York.Google Scholar
  51. Cassirer, E.: 1921, ‘Goethe und die mathematische Physik. Eine erkenntnistheoretische Studie’, in Idee und Gestalt, B. Cassirer, Berlin, 29–76.Google Scholar
  52. Cassirer, E.: 1953–1959, Philosophy of Symbolic Forms, 3 vols, Yale University Press, New Haven & London.Google Scholar
  53. Cassirer, E.: 1925, ‘Die Philosophie der Griechen von den Anfängen bis Platon’, in M. Dessoir (ed.), Lehrbuch der Philosophie, Vol. I, Die Geschichte der Philosophie, Ullstein, Berlin, 1–139.Google Scholar
  54. Cassirer, E.: 1969, ‘Mythic, Aesthetic and Theoretical Space’ (1931), Man and World 2, 3–17.Google Scholar
  55. Cassirer, E.: 1956, Determinism and Indeterminism in Modern Physics. Historical and Systematic Studies of the Problem of Causality, Yale University Press, New Haven and London.Google Scholar
  56. Cassirer, E.: 1961, The Logic of the Humanities, Yale University Press, New Haven and London.Google Scholar
  57. Cassirer, E.: 1944, An Essay on Man. An Introduction to a Philosophy of Human Culture, Yale University Press, New Haven and London.Google Scholar
  58. Chadwick, O.: 1975, The Secularization of the European Mind in the Nineteenth Century, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  59. Chalmers, A.: 1990, Science and Its Fabrication, Open University Press, Buckingham.Google Scholar
  60. Chandrasekhar, S.: 1987, Truth and Beauty: Aesthetics and Motivations in Science, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  61. Clark, G.: 1992, Space, Time and Man: A Prehistorian's View, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  62. Collingwood, R. G.: 1938, The Principles of Art, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  63. Collingwood, R. G.: 1940, An Essay on Metaphysics, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  64. Cornford, F.: 1957, From Religion to Philosophy. A Study in the Origins of Western Speculation, Harper, New York.Google Scholar
  65. Cornford, F.: 1952, Principium Sapientiae, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  66. Curtin, D. W.: 1980, The Aesthetic Dimension of Science, Philosophical Library, New York.Google Scholar
  67. Curtain, D. W. (ed.): 1982, The Aesthetic Dimension of Science, Philosophical Library, New York.Google Scholar
  68. Curthoys, J. and Suchting, W.: 1977, ‘Feyerabend's Discourse Against Method: A Marxist Critique’, Inquiry 20, 243–397.Google Scholar
  69. Dahlhaus, C.: 1988, Ludwig van Beethoven und seine Zeit (2nd ed.), Laaber-Verlag, Laaber.Google Scholar
  70. Damerow, P. and Lefèvre, W. (eds.): 1981, Rechenstein, Experiment, Sprache, Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  71. Dewey, J.: 1948, Reconstruction in Philosophy (2nd ed.), Boston:Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  72. Dewey, J.: 1929, The Quest for Certainty, Minton, Balch, New York.Google Scholar
  73. Dewey, J.: 1932, Art as Experience, G. Putnam, New York.Google Scholar
  74. Dewey, J.: 1938, Logic, the Theory of Inquiry, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  75. Diamond, J.: 1991, The Rise and Fall of the Third Chimpanzee, Radius, London.Google Scholar
  76. Dingler, H.: 1928, Das Experiment. Sein Wesen und seine Geschichte, Ernst Rinehardt, Munich.Google Scholar
  77. Dingler, H.: 1938, Die Methode der Physik, Ernst Rinehardt, Munich.Google Scholar
  78. Dingler, H.: 1969, Die Ergreifung des Wirklichen Kapitel I–IV, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/M..Google Scholar
  79. Doyal, L. and Harris, H.: 1986, Empiricism, Explanation and Rationality. An Introduction to the Philosophy of the Social Sciences, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  80. Duhem, P.: 1954, The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  81. Dux, G.: 1976, Strukturwandel der Legitimation, Freiburg/Munich, Karl Alber.Google Scholar
  82. Dux, G.: 1982, Die Logik der Weltbilder. Sinnstrukturen im Wandel der Geschichte, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/M..Google Scholar
  83. Dux, G.: 1989, Die Zeit in der Geschichte. Ihre Entwicklungslogik vom Mythos zur Weltzeit, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/M..Google Scholar
  84. Eddington, A. S.: 1939, The Philosophy of Physical Science, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  85. Edelman, G. M.: 1987, Neural Darwinism. The Theory of Neuronal Group Selection, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  86. Edgerton, S. Y., Jr.: 1991, The Heritage of Giotto's Geometry. Art and Science on the Eve of the Scientific Revolution, Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London.Google Scholar
  87. Ellenius, A. (ed.): 1985, The Natural Sciences and the Arts: Aspects of Interaction from the Renaissance to the Twentieth Century, Almqvist & Wiksell, Uppsala.Google Scholar
  88. Ellis, B.: 1990, Truth and Objectivity, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  89. Else, G. F.: 1965, The Origin and Early Form of Greek Tragedy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  90. Empson, W.: 1930, Seven Types of Ambiguity, Hogarth Press, London.Google Scholar
  91. Feyerabend, P. K.: 1967, ‘The Theatre as an Instrument for the Criticism of Ideologies: Notes on Ionesco’, Inquiry 10, 298–312.Google Scholar
  92. Feyerabend, P. K.: 1975, Against Method. Outline of an Anarchist Theory of Knowledge, NLB, London.Google Scholar
  93. Feyerabend, P. K.: 1978, Science in a Free Society, NLB, London.Google Scholar
  94. Feyerabend, P. K.: 1981, Philosophical Papers, 2 vols, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  95. Feyerabend, P. K.: 1987, Farewell to Reason, Verso, London and New York.Google Scholar
  96. Feynman, R. P.: 1992, The Character of Physical Law, Penguin.Google Scholar
  97. Fleck, L.: 1979, The Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact (1935), Chicago University Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  98. Frankfurt, H. et al.: 1949, Before Philosophy. The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man. Pelican.Google Scholar
  99. Freud, S.: 1966 ff., The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works, J. Strachey et al. (eds.), The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psychoanalysis.Google Scholar
  100. Freudenthal, G.: 1986, Atom and Individual in the Age of Newton, D. Reidel, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  101. Freudenthal, G.: 1988, ‘Towards a Social History of Newtonian Mechanics. Boris Hessen and Henryk Grossmann Revisited’, in I. Hronszky, M. Feher, B. Dajka (eds.), Scientific Knowledge Socialized, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 193–211.Google Scholar
  102. Frey, D.: 1929, Gotik und Renaissance als Grundlagen der modernen Weltanschauung, B. Filser, Augsburg.Google Scholar
  103. Fritz, K. von: 1962, Antike und Moderne Tragödie. Neun Abhandlungen, W. de Gruyter, Berlin.Google Scholar
  104. Gadamer, H.-G.: 1975, Truth and Method, Sheed and Ward, London.Google Scholar
  105. Gadamer, H.-G.: 1986, The Relevance of the Beautiful and Other Essays, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  106. Galison, P. and Helvy, B. (eds.): 1992, Big Science: The Growth of Large-Scale Research, Stanford University Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
  107. Gay, P.: 1966, 1969, The Enlightenment: An Interpretation, A. A. Knopf, New York.Google Scholar
  108. Gehlen, A.: 1980, Man in the Age of Technology, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  109. Gehlen, A.: 1988, Man. His Nature and Place in the World (1972), Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  110. Gombrich, E. K.: 1972, ‘The Visual Image’, Scientific American 227(3), 82–96.Google Scholar
  111. Gooding, D.: 1990, Experiment and the Making of Meaning, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London.Google Scholar
  112. Greiff, B. von: 1976, Gesellschaftsform und Erkenntnisform. Zum Zusammenhang von wissenschaftlicher Erfahrung und gesellschaftlicher Entwicklung, Campus Verlag, Frankfurt/M..Google Scholar
  113. Groethuysen, B.: 1969, Philosophische Anthropologie, R. Oldenbourg, Munich.Google Scholar
  114. Grove, J. W.: 1989, In Defence of Science: Science, Technology, and Politics in Modern Society, University of Toronto Press, Toronto.Google Scholar
  115. Hacking, I.: 1983, Representing and Intervening. Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  116. Hacking, I.: 1992, ‘His Father The Engineer’, London Review of Books, 28 May.Google Scholar
  117. Hacking, I.: 1992a, ‘Experimentation and Instrumentation in Natural Science’, in W. H. Newton-Smith and Jiang Tianji (eds.), Popper in China, Routledge, London and New York, 21–36.Google Scholar
  118. Hadjinicolaou, N.: 1978, Art History and Class Struggle, Pluto Press, London.Google Scholar
  119. Hallyn, J.: 1990, The Poetic Structure of the World: Copernicus and Kepler, Zone Books, New York.Google Scholar
  120. Hartmann, N.: 1951, Teleologisches Denken, W. de Gruyter, Berlin.Google Scholar
  121. Hauser, A.: 1951, The Social History of Art, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  122. Hauser, A.: 1959, The Philosophy of Art History, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  123. Hauser, A.: 1965, Mannerism. The Crisis of the Renaissance and the Origin of Modern Art, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  124. Heidegger, M.: 1962, Being and Time, J. Macquarrie and E. Robinson (tr.), Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  125. Heidegger, M.: 1969, What is a Thing?, Henry Regnery, Chicago.Google Scholar
  126. Heidegger, M.: 1977, The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays, Harper, New York.Google Scholar
  127. Heinimann, F.: 1945, Nomos und Physis. Herkunft und Bedeutung einer Antithese im Griechischen Denken des 5. Jahrhunderts, F. Reinhardt, Basel.Google Scholar
  128. Heller, A.: 1978, Das Alltagsleben. Versuch einer Erklärung der individuellen Reproduktion, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/M..Google Scholar
  129. Hempel, C. G.: 1952, Fundamentals of Concept Formation in Empirical Science (International Encyclopaedia of Unified Science, 7(2)), University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  130. Holton, G.: 1988, Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought: Kepler to Einstein (rev. ed.), Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass..Google Scholar
  131. Holzkamp, K.: 1968, Wissenschaft als Handlung, W. de Gruyter, Berlin & New York.Google Scholar
  132. Holzkamp, K.: 1986, Sinnliche Erkenntnis. Historischer Ursprung und gesellschaftliche Ursprung der Wahrnehmung (5th ed.), Athenaum, Frankfurt/M..Google Scholar
  133. Hübner, K.: 1978, ‘Mythische und wissenschaftliche Denkform’, Tijdschrift voor Filosofie 40, 637–658.Google Scholar
  134. Hunter, M. and Wootton, D. (eds.): 1992, Atheism from the Reformation to the Enlightenment, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  135. Husserl, E.: 1970, The Crisis of the European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology. An Introduction to Phenomenological Philosophy, Northwestern University Press, Evanston, Ill.Google Scholar
  136. Jameson, F.: 1981, The Political Unconscious, Cornell University Press, Ithaca.Google Scholar
  137. Kemp, M.: 1984, ‘Geometrical Perspective from Brunelleschi to Desargues: A Pictorial Means or an Intellectual End?’ Proceedings of the British Academy 70, 89–132.Google Scholar
  138. Kosik, K.: 1976, Dialectics of the Concrete. A Study on Problems of Man and World, D. Reidel, Dordrecht/Boston.Google Scholar
  139. Koyré, A.: 1955, ‘The Influence of Philosophic Trends on the Formulation of Scientific Theories’, Scientific Monthly, February, 107–111.Google Scholar
  140. Kitcher, P.: 1984, The Nature of Mathematical Knowledge, Oxford University Press, London & New York.Google Scholar
  141. Kristeller, P. O.: 1951–1952, ‘The Modern System of the Arts: A Study in the History of Aesthetics’, (I) (II), Journal of the History of Ideas 12, 496–527, 13, 17–46.Google Scholar
  142. Kuhn, T. S.: 1977, The Essential Tension. Selected Studies in Scientific Tradition and Change, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  143. Laitko, H.: 1979, Wissenschaft als allgemeine Arbeit. Zur begrifflicher Grundlegung der Wissenschaftswissenschaft, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  144. Lakatos, I.: 1976, Proofs and Refutations. The Logic of Mathematical Discovery, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  145. Lakatos, I.: 1978, Philosophical Papers, 2 vols, J. Worrall and G. Currie (eds.), 8–101, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  146. Langer, S. K.: 1953, Feeling and Form. A Theory of Art Developed from ‘Philosophy in a New Key’, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  147. Laymon, R.: 1985, ‘Idealization and the Testing of Theories by Experimentation’, in P. Achinstein and O. Hannaway (eds.), Observation, Experiment, and Hypothesis in Modern Physical Science, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 147–173.Google Scholar
  148. Lecourt, D.: 1975, Marxism and Epistemology. Bachelard, Canguilhem, Foucault, New Left Books, London.Google Scholar
  149. Lecourt, D.: 1974, Bachelard ou le jour et la nuit (Un essai du matérialisme dialectique), Bernard Grasset, Paris.Google Scholar
  150. Lefebvre, H.: 1947, Critique de la vie quotidienne, Grasset, Paris.Google Scholar
  151. Lefèvre, W.: 1978, Naturtheorie und Produktionsweise. Probleme einer materialistischen Wissenschaftsgeschichtsschreibung. Eine Studie zur Genese der neuzeitlichen Naturwissenschaft, Luchterhand, Darmstadt & Neuwied.Google Scholar
  152. Le Grand, H. E.: 1990, Experimental Inquiries. Historical, Philosophical and Social Studies of Experimentation in Science, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London.Google Scholar
  153. Lenoir, T.: 1988, ‘Practice, Reason, Context in the Dialogue between Theory and Experiment’, Science in Context 2, 3–22.Google Scholar
  154. Lenzen, V. F.: 1931, The Nature of Physical Theory, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  155. Lenzen, V. F.: 1937–1938, ‘Experience and Convention’, Erkenntnis 7, 257–267.Google Scholar
  156. Lenzen, V. F.: 1938, Procedures of Empirical Science (International Encyclopaedia of Unified Science 1(5)), University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  157. Lenzen, V. F.: 1939, ‘Reason in Science’, University of California Publications in Philosophy, 21, 77–96.Google Scholar
  158. Lewin, K.: 1927, Gesetz und Experiment in der Psychologie, Weltkreis-Verlag, Berlin/Schlachtensee.Google Scholar
  159. Lewin, K.: 1935, ‘The Conflict between Aristotelian and Galilean Modes of Thought in Contemporary Psychology’, in K. Lewin, A Dynamic Theory of Personality, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1–42.Google Scholar
  160. Ley, H.: 1966–1971, Geschichte der Aufklärung und des Atheismus, VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, Berlin.Google Scholar
  161. Lindsay, J.: 1974, Blast Power and Ballistics. Concepts of Force and Energy in the Ancient World, Frederick Muller, London.Google Scholar
  162. Lukács, G.: 1963, Aesthetik, Teil I, 1. Halbband, Luchterhand, Neuwied/Berlin.Google Scholar
  163. Lukács, G.: 1981, Entwicklungsgeschichte des modernen Dramas, Luchterhand, Darmstadt/Neuwied.Google Scholar
  164. MacIntyre, A.: 1967, A Short History of Ethics, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  165. MacIintyre, A.: 1981, After Virtue. A Study in Moral Theory, Duckworth, London.Google Scholar
  166. McMullin, E.: 1985, ‘Galilean Idealization’, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 1, 247–275.Google Scholar
  167. McNeill, D.: 1992, Hand and Mind. What Gestures Reveal About Thought, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  168. Macherey, P.: 1978, A Theory of Literary Production, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  169. Marcuse, H.: 1978, The Aesthetic Dimension. Towards a Critique of Marxist Aesthetics, Beacon Press, Boston.Google Scholar
  170. Marx, K. and Engels, F.: 1976, The German Ideology, Vol. 5 in Marx/Engels, Collected Works, Lawrence and Wishart, London.Google Scholar
  171. Midgley, M.: 1992, Science as Salvation. A Modern Myth and Its Meaning, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  172. Miller, R. W.: 1987, Fact and Method. Explanation, Confirmation and Reality in the Natural and the Social Sciences, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  173. Mittelstrass, J.: 1962, Die Rettung der Phänomene. Ursprung und Geschichte eines antiken Forschungsprinzips, W. de Gruyter, Berlin and New York.Google Scholar
  174. Mittelstrass, J.: 1970, Neuzeit und Aufklärung. Studien zur Entstehung der neuzeitlichen Wissenschaft und Philosophie, W. de Gruyter, Berlin & New York.Google Scholar
  175. Mittelstrass, J.: 1972, ‘The Galilean Revolution. The Historical Fate of a Methodological Insight’, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 2, 297–328.Google Scholar
  176. Morson, G. S. and Emerson, C.: 1990, Mikhail Bakhtin. Creation of a Prosaics, Stanford University Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
  177. Moscovici, S.: 1977, Essai sur l' histoire humaine de la nature (2nd ed.), Flammarion, Paris.Google Scholar
  178. Nestle, W.: 1941, Vom Mythos zum Logos, A. Kroner, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  179. Nicolson, M.: 1956, Science and Imagination, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.Google Scholar
  180. Nowak, L.: 1980, The Structure of Idealization, D. Reidel, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  181. Pap, A.: 1946, The A Priori in Physical Theory, King's Crown Press, New York.Google Scholar
  182. Parry, M.: 1971, The Making of Homeric Verse: The Collected Papers of Milman Parry, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  183. Passmore, J. A.: 1978, Science and Its Critics, Duckworth, London.Google Scholar
  184. Pearson, R. E.: 1992, Eloquent Gestures. The Transformation of Performance Style in the Griffith Biograph Films, University of California Press, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  185. Peirce, C. S.: 1940, Philosophical Writings, J. Buchler (ed.), Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  186. Penrose, R.: 1991, Review of Vol. 1 of The Scientific Papers and Letters of James Clerk Maxwell, London Review of Books, 26 September.Google Scholar
  187. Perez Sanchez, A. E. and Sayre, E. A. (eds.): 1989, Goya and the Spirit of Enlightenment, Little Brown, Boston.Google Scholar
  188. Pickering, A. (ed.): 1992, Science as Practice and Culture, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  189. Pitt, J. C.: 1992, Galileo, Human Knowledge, and the Book of Nature. Method Replaces Metaphysics, Kluwer, Dordrecht/Boston.Google Scholar
  190. Pohlenz, M.: 1953, ‘Nomos und Physis’, Hermes 81, 418–438.Google Scholar
  191. Poincaré, H.: 1968, The Value of Science, Dover, New York.Google Scholar
  192. Popper, K. R.: 1972, The Logic of Scientific Discovery (3rd ed.), Hutchinson, London.Google Scholar
  193. Popper, K. R.: 1966, The Open Society and its Enemies, Vol. I The Spell of Plato (5th ed.), Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  194. Popper, K. R.: 1963, Conjectures and Refutations, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  195. Popper, K. R.: 1982, Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics, Hutchinson, London.Google Scholar
  196. Popper, K. R.: 1982a, The Open Universe. An Argument for Indeterminism, Hutchinson, London.Google Scholar
  197. Putnam, H.: 1990, Realism With a Human Face, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass..Google Scholar
  198. Ramsey, F. P.: 1931, ‘General Propositions and Causality’ in The Foundations of Mathematics and Other Essays, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  199. Raphael, M.: 1989, Von Monet zu Picasso. Grundzüge einer Aesthetik und Entwicklung der modernen Malerei (2nd ed.), Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/M..Google Scholar
  200. Raphael, M.: 1921, Idee und Gestalt. Ein Führer zum Wesen der Kunst, Delphin-Verlag, Munich.Google Scholar
  201. Raphael, M.: 1968, The Demands of Art, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  202. Raphael, M.: 1945, Prehistoric Cave Paintings, Pantheon Books, New York.Google Scholar
  203. Raphael, M.: 1974, Theorie des geistigen Schaffens auf marxistischer Grundlage, S. Fischer, Frankfurt/M.Google Scholar
  204. Raphael, M.: 1975, Arbeiter, Kunst und Künstler. Beiträge zu einer marxistischen Kunstwissenschaft, S. Fischer, Frankfurt/M..Google Scholar
  205. Ravetz, J. R.: 1971, Scientific Knowledge and Its Social Problems, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  206. Reich, W.: 1973, Character Analysis, Vision Press, New York.Google Scholar
  207. Reich, W.: 1972, Sex-Pol. Essays 1929–1934, L. Baxandall (ed.), Vintage Books, New York.Google Scholar
  208. Rorty, R.: 1979, Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  209. Rorty, R.: 1989, Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  210. Rose, P. W.: 1992, Sons of the Gods, Children of Earth. Ideology and Literary Form in Ancient Greece, Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London.Google Scholar
  211. Rose, S.: 1992, Review of Schwartz (1992), Midgley (1992), Wolpert (1992), Times Literary Supplement, December 4.Google Scholar
  212. Ruby, J. E.: 1986, ‘The Origins of Scientific “Law”’, Journal of the History of Ideas 47, 341–359.Google Scholar
  213. Russell, B.: 1916, Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy, Allen & Unwin, London.Google Scholar
  214. Russell, B.: 1948, Human Knowledge. Its Scope and Limits, Allen & Unwin, London.Google Scholar
  215. Ryle, G.: 1949, The Concept of Mind, Hutchinson, London.Google Scholar
  216. Ryle, G.: 1950, ‘“If”, “So” and “Because”’, in M. Black (ed.), Essays in Philosophical Analysis, Cornell University Press, Itahaca.Google Scholar
  217. Ryle, G.: 1954, Dilemmas, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  218. Schiller, F.: 1967, On the Aesthetic Education of Man (Tr. E. M. Wilkinson and L. A. Willoughby), Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  219. Scriven, M.: 1959, ‘Truisms as the Grounds for Historical Explanations’, in P. Gardiner (ed.), Theories of History, Free Press, New York, 443–475.Google Scholar
  220. Shirley, J. and Hoeniger, D. (eds.): 1985, Science and the Arts in the Renaissance, Folger Books, Washington, D. C..Google Scholar
  221. Schleiermacher, F.: 1958 On Religion. Speeches to Its Cultured Despisers, Harper, New York.Google Scholar
  222. Schlick, M.: 1974, General Theory of Knowledge, Springer, Vienna.Google Scholar
  223. Schlick, M.: 1979, Philosophical Papers, 2 vols, D. Reidel, Dordrecht/Boston.Google Scholar
  224. Schlick, M.: 1987, The Problems of Philosophy in Their Interconnection, D. Reidel, Dordrecht/Boston.Google Scholar
  225. Schwartz, J.: 1992, The Creative Moment. How Science Made Itself Alien to Modern Culture, Jonathan Cape, London.Google Scholar
  226. Simmel, G.: 1985, Rembrandt. Eine kunstphilosophischer Versuch (1916), Matthes & Seitz, Munich.Google Scholar
  227. Smart, J. J. C.: 1989, Our Place in the Universe. A Metaphysical Discussion, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  228. Solomon, M.: 1988, Beethoven Essays, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass..Google Scholar
  229. Sorell, T.: 1991, Scientism: Philosophy and the Infatuation with Science, London, Routledge.Google Scholar
  230. Spengler, O.: 1926–1928, The Decline of the West, 2 vols, Knopf, New York.Google Scholar
  231. Spengler, O.: 1932, Man and Technics. A Contribution to a Philosophy of Life, Allen and Unwin, London.Google Scholar
  232. Sprinker, M.: 1987, Imaginary Relations. Aesthetics and Ideology in the Theory of Historical Materialism, Verso, London.Google Scholar
  233. Stachel, J.: 1974, ‘A Note on the Concept of Scientific Practice’, R. S. Cohen et al. (eds.), Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 15, Reidel, Dordrecht, pp. 417–433.Google Scholar
  234. Stebbing, L. S.:1937, Philosophy and the Physicists, Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  235. Steiner, G.: 1992, After Babel. Aspects of Language and Translation (2nd ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  236. Stone, I. F.: 1988, The Trial of Socrates, Little Brown, Boston.Google Scholar
  237. Stove, D.:1991, The Cult of Plato and Other Philosophical Follies, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  238. Strong, E. W.: 1936, Procedures and Metaphysics. A Study in the Philosophy of Mathematical-Physical Science in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  239. Suchting, W.: 1975, ‘Marx on the Dialectics of Production and Consumption in the Introduction to the Grundrisse’, Social Praxis 3, 291–313.Google Scholar
  240. Suchting, W.: 1983, Marx. An Introduction, Wheatsheaf Books, Brighton.Google Scholar
  241. Suchting, W.: 1986, Marx and Philosophy. Three Studies, Macmillan, London.Google Scholar
  242. Suchting, W.: 1991, ‘On Some Unsettled Questions Touching the Character of Marxism, especially as Philosophy’, Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal, New School for Social Research, 14(1), 139–207.Google Scholar
  243. Suchting, W.: 1992, ‘Reflections on Roy Bhaskar's “Critical Realism”’, Radical Philosophy 61.Google Scholar
  244. Taylor, C.: 1989, Sources of the Self. The Making of the Modern Identity, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  245. Tetens, H.: 1987, Experimentelle Erfahrung. Eine wissenschaftstheoretische Studie über die Rolle des Experiments in der Begriffs- und Theorie-Bildung der Physik, F. Meiner, Hamburg.Google Scholar
  246. Theiler, W.: 1965, Zur Geschichte der teleologischer Naturbetrachtung bis auf Aristoteles (2nd ed.), W. de Gruyter, Berlin and New York.Google Scholar
  247. Thomson, G.: 1946, Aeschylus and Athens. A Study in the Social Origins of Drama (2nd ed.), Lawrence and Wishart, London.Google Scholar
  248. Thomson, G.:1955, The First Philosophers, Lawrence and Wishart, London.Google Scholar
  249. Tiles, M.: 1984, Bachelard: Science and Objectivity, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  250. Toulmin, S. E.: 1953, Philosophy of Science. An Introduction, Hutchinson, London.Google Scholar
  251. Toulmin, S. E.: 1958, The Uses of Argument, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  252. Toulmin, S. E.: 1959, ‘Criticism in the History of Science: Newton on Absolute Space, Time, and Motion’, Philosophical Review 68, 1–29, 203–227.Google Scholar
  253. Toulmin, S. E.: 1961, Foresight and Understanding. An Enquiry into the Aims of Science, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana.Google Scholar
  254. Toulmin, S. E.: 1972, Human Understanding, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  255. Vološinov, V. N. 1973, Marxism and the Philosophy of Language, Seminar Press, New York & London.Google Scholar
  256. Vološinov, V. N.: 1987, Freudianism. A Critical Sketch, Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis.Google Scholar
  257. Vygotsky, L. S.: 1962, Thought and Language, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..Google Scholar
  258. Vygotsky, L. S.: The Psychology of Art, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass..Google Scholar
  259. Wagner, R.: 1893, Opera and Drama, Vol. II of Prose Works (tr. W. A. Ellis), Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  260. Watson, W. H.: 1938, On Understanding Physics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  261. Weber, M.: 1947, The Theory of Social and Economic Organization, The Free Press, New York.Google Scholar
  262. White, L., Jr.: 1946, ‘Natural Science and Naturalistic Art in the Middle Ages’, American Historical Review 52, 421–435.Google Scholar
  263. Wieland, W.: 1970, Die Aristotelische Physik (2nd ed.), Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Gottingen.Google Scholar
  264. Will, F. L.: 1988, Beyond Deductivism. Ampliative Aspects of Philosophical Reflection, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  265. Williams, R.: 1983, Keywords. A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, Fontana, London.Google Scholar
  266. Winspear, A. D.: 1974, The Genesis of Plato's Thought (3rd ed.), Harvest House, Montreal.Google Scholar
  267. Wittgenstein, L.: 1953, Philosophical Investigations, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  268. Wittgenstein, L.: 1967, Zettel, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  269. Wittgenstein, L.: 1969, On Certainty, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  270. Wittgenstein, L.: 1974, Philosophical Grammar, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  271. Wittgenstein, L.: 1977, Vermischte Bemerkungen, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/M..Google Scholar
  272. Wittgenstein, L.: 1978, Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics G. H. von Wright, R. Rhees, G. E. M. Anscombe (eds.) (2nd ed.), Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  273. Wittgenstein, L.: 1986, Conversations 1945–1951 (with O. K. Bouwsma), Hackett Publ. Co., Indianapolis.Google Scholar
  274. Wolpert, L.: 1992, The Unnatural Nature of Science, Faber, London.Google Scholar
  275. Wood, E. M. and Wood N.: 1978, Class Ideology and Ancient Political Theory, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  276. Zilsel, E.: 1942, ‘The Genesis of the Concept of Physical Law’, Philosophical Review 51, 245–279.Google Scholar
  277. Zilsel, E.: 1942a, ‘The Sociological Roots of Science’ American Journal of Sociology 47, 544–562.Google Scholar
  278. Zilsel, E.: 1976, Die sozialen Ursprünge der neuzeitlichen Wissenschaft, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/M..Google Scholar
  279. Ziman, J.: 1978, Reliable Knowledge. An Exploration of the Grounds for Belief in Science, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. A. Suchting
    • 1
  1. 1.UltimoAustralia

Personalised recommendations