Theoretical Medicine

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 299–304 | Cite as

What is minimal monitoring?

Only a problem of accurately assessing cardiovascular parameters during anaesthesia?
  • J. S. Gravenstein


The definition of what constitutes minimal monitoring rests not so much on a scientific analysis of physiologic variables and their specificity, sensitivity, and predictiveness, but more on a usage pattern in a given community or country. In the United States, the minimal monitoring standards accepted in the majority of institutions and used for routine anesthesia care of patients not classified as high risk include (1) the alert anesthesiologist or nurse anesthetist observer, (2) an electrocardiogram, (3) a blood pressure measuring device, and (4) an oxygen analyzer in the breathing circuit. To this basic cluster of monitors can be added a finger plethysmograph, a neuromuscular junction monitor, a temperature probe, and an esophageal/precordial stethoscope which are used in many communities. In the near future we expect to see a capnograph and a pulse oximeter added to this list, and later on the automated anesthesia record.

Key words

Minimal monitoring Physiologic variables Usage patterns of communities and countries 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    ‘Editorial: 12 million cups of decaf’ Wall Street Journal, page 12, Friday, January 3, 1986.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Gravenstein, J. S.: ‘Essential monitoring seen through different lenses’, J. Clin. Monit. 2:22–29, 1986.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Examples of Approaches to Risk Management, compiled and presented by the American Society of Anesthesiologists, 515 Busse Highway, Park Ridge, Illinois 60068; September 1985.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. S. Gravenstein
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiaUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations