Theoretical and Experimental Chemistry

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 1–9 | Cite as

Electronic structure, energy of hydration, and stability of metal aquo ions

  • K. B. Yatsimirskii


The stability of metal aquo ions with respect to redox reactions is determined by the ionization energies of the atoms and the Gibbs energies of hydration for the ions(−ΔhG0). We present critically selected values of −ΔhG0 for 55 metal ions, determined from electrochemical, thermochemical, and spectra data. We consider the factors determining the values of −ΔhG0 (charges, ionic radii, electronic structure, and relativistic effects). For isoelectronic ions, we observe correlations between the ratios of the Gibbs energies of hydration for these ions with different charges and the ratios of their ionic radii. Based on the use of these correlations, we find −ΔhG0 for a number of aquo ions not observed experimentally and we estimate the unknown oxidation-reduction potentials for the pairs of ions M3+/M2+. We formulate the principles for stabilization of unstable oxidation states of the metals by including the corresponding ions in complexes with certain classes of ligands.


Oxidation Hydration Gibbs Energy Oxidation State Relativistic Effect 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. B. Yatsimirskii
    • 1
  1. 1.L. V. Pisarzhevskii Institute of Physical ChemistryAcademy of Sciences of UkraineKiev

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