The structural organization of the mouse kidney
- 292 Downloads
The structural organization of the mouse kidney has been investigated by means of standard histology procedures, by injecting the blood vessels and by injecting single nephrons.
The arrangement of the nephrons establishes a zonation which, in the medulla, differs to some extend from that seen in other mammalian species. The outer medullary zone consists, in addition to outer and inner stripes, of a third part which we call the innermost stripe—due to its location between the inner stripe proper and the inner zone. As most of the short loops, at this level, have already turned back it contains almost exclusively limbs of long loops of Henle.
The blood vessels exhibit the well known basic pattern of the mammalian kidney. Differences do exist, however, with respect to the morphology of the vascular bundles: frequently at the transition of outer and inner stripes, several vascular bundles unite to form large secondary bundles which extend throughout the inner stripe, recovering into the original number of bundles at the transition to the innermost stripe.
The limbs of the short loops of Henle run directly through the medullary rays and the outer stripe; thereby, corresponding descending and ascending loop limbs mostly occupy a neighbouring position. At the transition of outer and inner stripes corresponding loop limbs separate from each other, the descending limb running within the vascular bundle, the ascending limb within the interbundle region. At the transition to the innermost stripe the descending limbs leave the bundles, most of them looping back with only a minority of them reaching the innermost stripe.
The limbs of the long loops of Henle directly, without passing the medullary rays, penetrate or emerge from the outer stripe, respectively. Throughout the total renal medulla, corresponding limbs of long loops mostly run separated from each other. In the inner stripe their descending limbs, in contrast to those of short loops, are nerve included within a vascular bundle. In the inner zone neither of the loop limbs occupy a constant histotopographical position.
The short and long loops of Henle differ both in histotopographical position and in their epithelia. Even at the light microscopic level it may be seen that the thin descending limbs of long loops are equipped with a thicker and apparently more complex epithelium than those of the short loops.
The characteristic course of short and long loops of Henle in combination with the differences in the epithelial lining of their descending limbs suggest sa different function of both loops in the renal medullary concentrating process.
Key wordsMouse kidney Blood vessls Short-looped nephron Long-looped nephron Renal architecture Renal medullary function
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Beeuwkes, R.: Efferent vascular patterns and early vascular-tubular relations in the dog kidney. Amer. J. Physiol. 221, 1361–1374 (1971)Google Scholar
- Dieterich, H. J.: Die Ultrastruktur der Gefäßbündel im Mark der Rattenniere. Z. Zellforsch. 84, 350–371 (1968)Google Scholar
- Dieterich, H. J., Kriz, W.: Zum Problem der Fixierung des Nierenmarks. Licht- und eletronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen an der Außenzone der Rattenniere. Acta anat. (Basel) 74, 267–289 (1969)Google Scholar
- Dieterich, H. J., Barrett, J. M., Kriz, W.: The ultrastructure of the thin loop limbs in the mouse kidney. (in preparation)Google Scholar
- Fourman, J., Moffat, D. B.: Observations on the fine blood vessels of the kidney. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 11, 57–71 (1964)Google Scholar
- Fourman, J., Moffat, D. B.: The blood vessels of the kidney. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications 1971Google Scholar
- Kettyle, W. M., Valtin, H.: Chemical and dimensional characterization of the renal countercurrent system in mice. Kidney International 1, 135–144 (1972)Google Scholar
- Kokko, J. P., Rector, F. C., Jr.: Countercurrent multiplication system without active transport in inner medulla. Kidney International 2, 214–223 (1972)Google Scholar
- Kriz, W.: Der architektonische und funktionelle Aufbau der Rattenniere. Z. Zellforsch. 82, 495–535 (1967)Google Scholar
- Kriz, W.: Organisation of structures within the renal medulla. In: Schmidt-Nielsen, B. (ed.), Urea and the kidney. Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica Int. Congress Series No. 195, p. 342–357 (1968)Google Scholar
- Kriz, W., Dieterich, H. J.: The supplying and draining vessels of the renal medulla in mammals. Proc. 4th Jnt. Congr. Nephrol., Stockholm, vol. 1, p. 138–144. Basel: S. Karger 1970Google Scholar
- Kriz, W., Dieterich, H. J.: Das Lymphgefäßsystem der Niere bei einigen Säugetieren. Lichtund elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen. Z. Anat. Entwickl.-Gesch. 131, 111–147 (1970)Google Scholar
- Kriz, W., Dieterich, H. J., Hoffmann, S.: Aufbau der Gefäßbündel im Nierenmark von Wüstenmäusen. Naturwissenschaften 55, 40 (1968)Google Scholar
- Kriz, W., Schnermann, J., Dieterich, H. J.: Differences in the morphology of descending limbs of short and long loops of Henle in the rat kidney. Int. Symp. on Renal Handling of Sodium, Brestenberg 1971, p. 140–144. Basel: S. Karger 1972bGoogle Scholar
- Kriz, W., Schnermann, J., Koepsell, H.: The position of short and long loops of Henle in the rat kidney. Z. Anat. Entwickl.-Gesch. 138, 301–319 (1972a)Google Scholar
- Ljungqvist, A.: Structure of the arteriole-glomerular units in different zones of the kidney. Nephron 1, 329–337 (1964)Google Scholar
- Longley, J. B.: Histochemistry of the kidney. In: Rouiller, Ch., Muller, A. F. (eds.), The kidney, vol. I, p. 157–259. New York: Academic Press 1969Google Scholar
- Moffat, D. B., Fourman, J.: The vascular pattern of the rat kidney. J. Anat. (Lond.) 97, 543–553 (1963)Google Scholar
- Naik, D. V., Valtin, H.: Hereditary vasopressin-resistant urinary concentrating defects in mice. Amer. J. Physiol. 217, 1183–1190 (1969)Google Scholar
- Peter, K.: Untersuchungen über Bau und Entwicklung der Niere. Jena: Gustav Fischer 1909Google Scholar
- Plakke, R. K., Pfeiffer, E. W.: Blood vessels of the mammalian renal medulla. Science 146, 1683–1685 (1964)Google Scholar
- Rollhäuser, H., Kriz, W., Heinke, W.: Das Gefäßsystem der Rattenniere. Z. Zellforsch. 64, 381–403 (1964)Google Scholar
- Sperber, J.: Studies on the mammalian kidney. Zool. Bidrag. (Uppsala) 22, 249–431 (1944)Google Scholar
- Stephenson, J. L.: Concentration of urine in a central core model of the renal counterflow system. Kidney International 2, 85–94 (1972)Google Scholar
- Stephenson, J. L.: Concentrating engines and the kidney. II. Multisolute central core systems. Biophys. J. 13, 546–567 (1973)Google Scholar
- Steward, J.: Renal concentrating ability in mice: a model for the use of genetic variation in elucidating relationships between structure and function. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 327, 1–15 (1971)Google Scholar
- Steward, J., Luggen, M. E., Valtin, H.: A computer model of the renal countercurrent system. Kidney International 2, 253–263 (1972)Google Scholar
- Stewart, J., Valtin, H.: Computer simulation of osmotic gradient without active transport in renal inner medulla. Kidney International 2, 264–270 (1972)Google Scholar