International Journal of Thermophysics

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 535–544 | Cite as

Environmental regulations on chlorofluorocarbons

  • J. S. Hoffman
  • J. B. Wells


In August 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued final regulations that implement the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The regulations require a 50% reduction in consumption of fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) within 10 years and a freeze on consumption of halons within 4 years. The Montreal Protocol provisions were designed in September 1987 based on the results of a 2-year international series of scientific, technical, and economic workshops. As would be expected, scientific investigations continued during this period. While these investigations suggested that significant global depletion had already occurred, these preliminary findings were not taken into account during negotiations or rulemaking. In March 1988, however, the international Ozone Trends Panel confirmed the findings. Depletion greater than that projected under the Montreal Protocol has already occurred. An early reassessment of the Protocol provisions appears to be inevitable. Restrictions on CFCs will affect the refrigeration and air-conditioning industries. Emerging alternatives to CFCs include newly developed refrigerants, innovative designs, and engineering controls. Key issues in evaluating these alternatives include energy efficiency, capital costs, service to consumers, and compatibility with existing designs.

Key words

chlorofluorocarbons freons ozone layer refrigerants 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. S. Hoffman
    • 1
  • J. B. Wells
    • 2
  1. 1.Office of Air and RadiationU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyWashington, D.C.USA
  2. 2.The Bruce CompanyWashington, D.C.USA

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