Effects of nitrogen-containing fertilizers on solubility and plant uptake of cadmium
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In a pot experiment, three N-fertilizers, differing in NO−3 and NH+4; content, were compared in terms of their effects on the extractability of soil Cd in 1M ammonium acetate at pH 7 and on the uptake of native and added Cd by winter rape (Brassica napus L. var. oleifera Metzger). In another similar experiment the Cd-availability in soils receiving NPK-fertilizer applied in a concentrated, granulated form was compared to that in soils receiving a uniform application of dissolved NPK-fertilizer. Both loamy sand and clay soils were used. With the N-fertilizers levels of extractable soil Cd and plant Cd-contents were lowest in the nitrate of lime treatment, highest in the ammonium sulphate treatment and intermediate in the nitro-chalk treatment. The addition of 1 mg kg−1 DW Cd to the soil increased Cd-levels but did not change the response pattern. There was a strong association between the effects of the various fertilizers on Cd availability and their effects on soil pH: the stronger the acidifying effect the higher the Cd availability. When applied at a low dose, granular NPK was more effective than dissolved NPK at enhancing plant uptake of Cd from both soils, but this was not the case when applied at a higher dose to the sand. The two forms of NPK differed little in their effect on extractable soil Cd. Plant uptake of Cd was greater from soils receiving granular NPK with a high Cd-content than from those receiving granular NPK low in Cd. In both experiments extractable Cd was taken up to a greater extent from the sand than from the clay. An increase in fertilizer dose generally resulted in an increase in levels of soil-Cd and in Cd concentrations in the plants.
KeywordsAmmonium Acetate Ammonium Sulphate Brassica Napus Plant Uptake Extractable Soil
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