Biochemical Genetics

, Volume 18, Issue 1–2, pp 39–49 | Cite as

Biochemical markers in a species endangered by introgression: The red wolf

  • Robert E. Ferrell
  • Donald C. Morizot
  • Jacqueline Horn
  • Curtis J. Carley


The red wolf (Canis rufus), native to much of the southeastern United States, is endangered by man's activities and by hybridization with other species of the genus Canis. The absence of diagnostic morphological markers to distinguish the red wolf from its hybrids has led to the application of the methods of biochemical genetics to this problem. The finding of a unique electrophoretically determined allele with a distribution congruent with the geographical distribution of the remaining red wolf population is reported.

Key words

Canis polymorphism hybridization 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Baur, E. W., and Schorr, R. T. (1969). Genetic polymorphism of tetrazolium oxidase in dogs. Science 1661524.Google Scholar
  2. Bengtsson, S., and Sandberg, K. (1973). A method for simultaneous electrophoresis of four horse red cell enzyme systems. Anim. Blood Grps. Biochem. Genet. 483.Google Scholar
  3. Braend, M., and Austad, R. (1973). Polymorphism of red cell acid phosphatase in dogs. Anim. Blood Grps. Biochem. Genet. 4189.Google Scholar
  4. Brewer, G. J. (1970). An Introduction to Isozyme Techniques Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Fisher, R. A., Putt, W., and Hackel, E. (1976). An investigation of the products of 53 gene loci in three species of wild Canidae: Canis lupus, Canis latrans and Canis familiaris. Biochem. Genet. 14963.Google Scholar
  6. Hall, E. R., and Kelson, K. R. (1959). The Mammals of North America, Vol. II, Ronald Press, New York, p. 842.Google Scholar
  7. Lawrence, B., and Bossert, W. H. (1967). Multiple character analysis of Canis lupus, latrans and familaris, with a discussion of the relationships of Canis niger. Am. Zool. 7223.Google Scholar
  8. McCarley, H. (1959). The mammals of eastern Texas. Tex. J. Sci. 2385.Google Scholar
  9. McCarley, H. (1962). The taxonomic status of wild canis (Canidae) in the south central United States. S.W. Naturalist 7227.Google Scholar
  10. Meera Kahn, P., Los, W. R. T., Does, J. A., and Epstein, R. B. (1973). Isoenzyme markers in dog blood cells. Transplantation 15624.Google Scholar
  11. Paradiso, J. L. (1965). Recent records of red wolves from the Gulf Coast of Texas. S.W. Naturalist 10318.Google Scholar
  12. Paradiso, J. L. (1968). Canids recently collected in east Texas, with comments on the taxonomy of the red wolf. Am. Midland Naturalist 80529.Google Scholar
  13. Paradiso, J. L., and Nowak, R. M. (1971). A Report on the Taxonomic Status and Distribution of the Red Wolf, U.S. Department of the Interior Special Scientific Report—Wildlife No. 145, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  14. Pimlott, D. H., and Joslin, P. W. (1968). The status and distribution of the red wolf. In Tr. 33rd N.A. Wildlife Natural Resources Conf., p. 373.Google Scholar
  15. Richkind, K. E., and Richkind, M. (1978). Polymorphism at the glucosephosphate isomerase locus in the dog. J. Hered. 69141.Google Scholar
  16. Riley, G. A., and McBride, R. T. (1972). A Survey of the Red Wolf (Canis rufus), U.S. Department of the Interior Special Scientific Report—Wildlife No. 162, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  17. Shaw, C. R., and Prasad, R. (1970). Starch gel electrophoresis of enzymes—A compilation of recipes. Biochem. Genet. 4297.Google Scholar
  18. Simonsen, V. (1976). Electrophoretic studies on the blood proteins of domestic dogs and other Canidae. Hereditas 827.Google Scholar
  19. Swallow, D. M., Povey, S., and Harris, H. (1973). Activity of the “red cell” acid phosphatase locus in other tissues. Ann. Hum. Genet. 2731.Google Scholar
  20. Weiden, P., Storb, R., Kolb, H. J., Graham, T., Anderson, J., and Giblett, E. (1974). Genetic variation of red blood cell enzymes in the dog. Transplantation 17114.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert E. Ferrell
    • 1
  • Donald C. Morizot
    • 1
  • Jacqueline Horn
    • 1
  • Curtis J. Carley
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Demographic and Population GeneticsUniversity of Texas Health Science CenterHouston
  2. 2.U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceAlbuquerque New Mexico

Personalised recommendations