Mechanisms of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine β-hydroxylase induction in organ cultures of rat sympathetic ganglia by potassium depolarization and cholinomimetics
- 29 Downloads
It was the aim of the present study to elucidate the mechanisms involved in specific tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) induction by potassium depolarization and cholinomimetics in rat superior cervical ganglia kept in organ culture.
a specific induction of TH and DBH via release of acetylcholine from preganglionic cholinergic nerve terminals.
a non-specific effect on terminal adrenergic neurons resulting in a general increase of protein synthesis as indicated by the increase in DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activities.
In decentralized superior cervical ganglia potassium depolarization failed to produce the specific TH and DBH induction although a small increase in DDC activity persisted. Carbamylcholine, acetylcholine and nicotine at concentrations of 10−4 M elicited a selective induction of TH and DBH both in intact and decentralized ganglia via nicotinic receptor stimulation. Bethanechol, predominantly stimulating muscarinic receptors had no significant effect on TH activity. A 4 h pulse of 10−4 M carbamylcholine produced optimal induction of DBH and TH 24 h and 48 h later respectively. Longer exposure to carbamylcholine resulted in a significantly smaller rise in TH activity.
Key wordsPotassium-depolarization Cholinomimetics Trans-synaptic induction Superior cervical ganglia
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Axelrod, J.: Purification and properties of phenylethanolamine-N-methyl transferase. J. biol. Chem. 237, 1657–1660 (1962)Google Scholar
- Black, I. B., Hendry, I. A., Iversen, L. L.: Differences in the regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase and DOPA decarboxylase in sympathetic ganglia and adrenals. Nature New Biol. 231, 27–29 (1971)Google Scholar
- Chuang, D. M., Costa, E.: Biosynthesis of tyrosine hydroxylase in rat adrenal medulla after exposure to cold. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 71, 4570–4574 (1974)Google Scholar
- Gagnon, C., Otten, U., Thoenen, H.: Dopamine β-hydroxylase in organ cultures of rat adrenal medulla: Synthesis, storage, release and trans-synaptic induction. In: “Catecholamines and stress”, Oxford-New York: Pergamon Press (in press, 1976)Google Scholar
- Goodman, R., Oesch, F., Thoenen, H.: Changes in enzyme patterns produced by high potassium concentration and dibutyryl cyclic AMP in organ cultures of sympathetic ganglia. J. Neurochem. 23, 369–378 (1974)Google Scholar
- Guidotti, A., Costa, E.: Involvement of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate in the activation of tyrosine hydroxylase elicited by drugs. Science 179, 902–904 (1973)Google Scholar
- Häkanson, R., Owman, Ch.: Pineal dopa decarboxylase and monoamine oxidase activities as related to the monoamine stores. J. Neurochem. 13, 597–605 (1966)Google Scholar
- Iversen, L. L., Hendry, I. A. Mackay, A. V. P.: Assay of nerve growth factor (NGF) in mouse tissue and the role of NGF and depolarizing stimuli in the long-term regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in adrenergic neurons. In: Dynamics of degeneration and growth in neurons, pp. 329–345. Oxford-New York: Pergamon Press 1973Google Scholar
- Joh, T. H., Geghman, C., Reis, D. J.: Immunochemical demonstration of increased accumulation of tyrosine hydroxylase protein in sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla elicited by reserpine. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 70, 2767–2771 (1973)Google Scholar
- Levitt, M., Gibb, J. W., Daly, J. W., Lipton, M., Udenfriend, S.: A new class of tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitors and a simple assay of inhibition in vivo. Biochem. Pharmacol. 16, 1313–1321 (1967)Google Scholar
- Lowry, O. H., Rosebrough, N. J., Farr, A. L., Randall, R. J.: Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. biol. Chem. 193, 265–275 (1951)Google Scholar
- Mackay, A. V. P.: The long-term regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in cultured sympathetic ganglia: Role of ganglionic noradrenaline content. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 51, 509–520 (1974)Google Scholar
- Mackay, A. V. P., Iversen, L. L.: Trans-synaptic regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in adrenergic neurons: Effect of potassium concentration on cultured sympathetic ganglia. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 272, 225–229 (1972)Google Scholar
- Molinoff, P. B., Axelrod, J.: Biochemistry of catecholamines. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 40, 465–500 (1971)Google Scholar
- Molinoff, P. B., Brimijoin, S., Weinshilboum, R., Axelrod, J.: Neuronally mediated increase in dopamine β-hydroxylase activity. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 66, 453–458 (1970)Google Scholar
- Molinoff, P. B., Weinshilboum, R., Axelrod, J.: A sensitive enzyme assay for dopamine β-hydroxylase. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 178, 425–431 (1971)Google Scholar
- Mueller, R. A., Thoenen, H., Axelrod, J.: Increase in tyrosine hydroxylase activity after reserpine administration. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 169, 74–79 (1969a)Google Scholar
- Mueller, R. A., Thoenen, H., Axelrod, J.: Inhibition of transynaptically increased tyrosine hydroxylase activity by cycloheximide and actinomycin D. Molec. Pharmacol. 5, 463–469 (1969b)Google Scholar
- Mueller, R. A., Thoenen, H., Axelrod, J.: Inhibition of neuronally induced tyrosine hydroxylase by nicotinic receptor blockade. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 10, 51–56 (1970)Google Scholar
- Oesch, F., Otten, U., Thoenen, H.: Relationship between the rate of axoplasmic transport and subcellular distribution of enzymes involved in the synthesis of norepinephrine. J. Neurochem. 20, 1691–1706 (1973)Google Scholar
- Otten, U., Paravicini, U., Oesch, F., Thoenen, H.: Time requirement for the single steps of trans-synaptic induction of tyrosine hydroxylase in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 280, 117–127 (1973)Google Scholar
- Otten, U., Thoenen, H.: Circadian rhythm of tyrosine hydroxylase induction by short-term cold stress: Modulatory action of glucocorticoids in newborn and adult rats. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 72, 1415–1419 (1975)Google Scholar
- Patrick, R. L., Kirshner, N.: Effect of stimulation on levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine β-hydroxylase and catecholamine in intact and denervated rat adrenal glands. Molec. Pharmacol. 7, 87–96 (1971a)Google Scholar
- Patrick, R. L., Kirshner, N.: Acetylcholine-induced stimulation of catecholamine recovery in denervated rat adrenals after reserpine-induced depletion. Molec. Pharmacol. 7, 389–396 (1971b)Google Scholar
- Phillipson, O. T., Sandler, M.: The influence of nerve growth factor, potassium depolarization and dibutyryl (cyclic) adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate on explant cultures of chick embryo sympathetic ganglia. Brain Res. 90, 273–281 (1975)Google Scholar
- Scott, B. S., Fisher, K. C.: Effect of choline, high potassium and low sodium on the number of neurons in cultures of dissociated chick ganglia. Exp. Neurol. 31, 183–188 (1971)Google Scholar
- Silberstein, S. D., Brimijoin, S., Molinoff, P. B., Lemberger, L.: Induction of dopamine β-hydroxylase in rat superior cervical ganglia in organ culture. J. Neurochem. 19, 919–921 (1972)Google Scholar
- Silberstein, S. D., Lemberger, L., Klein, D. C., Axelrod, J., Kopin, I. J.: Induction of adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase in organ culture. Neuropharmacology 11, 721–726 (1972)Google Scholar
- Snedecor, G. W., Cochran, W. G.: Statistical methods. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1967Google Scholar
- Thoenen, H.: Neuronally mediated enzyme induction in adrenergic neurons and adrenal chromaffin cells. Biochem. Soc. Symp. 36, 3–15 (1972)Google Scholar
- Thoenen, H.: Trans-synaptic regulation of neuronal enzyme synthesis. In: Handbook of psychopharmacology, vol. 3, pp. 443–475. New York-London: Plenum Press 1975Google Scholar
- Thoenen, H., Kettler, R., Burkhard, W., Saner, A.: Neuronally mediated control of enzymes involved in the synthesis of norepinephrine: Are they regulated as an operational unit? Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmak. 270, 146–160 (1971)Google Scholar